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      Effects of NO Synthase Inhibitors on the Synovial Microcirculation in the Mouse Knee Joint

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          Abstract

          Production of nitric oxide by the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is known to be enhanced in chronic joint inflammation and osteoarthritis as well as aseptic loosening of joint prostheses. Initial studies yielded promising results after inhibition of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS). However, the effect of NOS inhibition has not been studied at the site of the primary function of NO, the microcirculation of the synovium in vivo. Using our recently developed model for the in vivo study of synovial microcirculation in the mouse knee joint, the effects of selective versus nonselective inhibition of iNOS were investigated by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy. After resection of the patella tendon, the synovial fatty tissue was exposed for intravital microscopy. Diameter of arterioles, functional capillary density (FCD), diameter of venules, venular red blood cell velocity and leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction were quantitatively analyzed before, and 10 and 60 min after intravenous injection of NOS inhibitors [selective iNOS inhibitor N-iminoethyl- L-lysine (L-NIL), and nonselective NOS inhibitor N<sup>G</sup>-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)]. Our results demonstrate that L-NAME causes a significant decrease in the arteriolar diameter and FCD associated with an increase in the leukocyte accumulation in the synovium in vivo. In contrast, L-NIL neither altered the microhemodynamics nor the leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the synovium, indicating its potential use for selective inhibition of iNOS in joint inflammation. Using our method, further studies will provide new insights into the unknown effect of NOS inhibition on the synovial microvasculature in inflammatory joint disease in vivo.

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          Suppression of arthritis by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase

          Nitric oxide (NO), a toxic radical gas produced during the metabolism of L-arginine by NO synthase (NOS), has been implicated as a mediator of immune and inflammatory responses. A single injection of streptococcal cell wall fragments (SCW) induces the accumulation of inflammatory cells within the synovial tissue and a cell-mediated immune response that leads destructive lesions. We show here that NO production is elevated in the inflamed joints of SCW-treated rats. Administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of NOS, profoundly reduced the synovial inflammation and tissue damage as measured by an articular index and reflected in the histopathology. These studies implicate the NO pathway in the pathogenesis of an inflammatory arthritis and demonstrate the ability of a NOS inhibitor to modulate the disease.
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            Inhibition of Endothelial Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Nitric Oxide Involves the Induction and Nuclear Translocation of IκBα

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              JVR
              J Vasc Res
              10.1159/issn.1018-1172
              Journal of Vascular Research
              S. Karger AG
              1018-1172
              1423-0135
              1999
              October 1999
              28 October 1999
              : 36
              : 5
              : 379-384
              Affiliations
              aDepartment of Orthopedics and bInstitute for Surgical Research, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Germany
              Article
              25677 J Vasc Res 1999;36:379–384
              10.1159/000025677
              10559678
              944bc5d8-118d-4467-92bc-7d76225c5a75
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              History
              Page count
              Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 27, Pages: 6
              Categories
              Research Paper

              General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
              Knee joint,Synovial microcirculation,Mouse,Arthritis,L-NAME,L-NIL,Nitric oxide

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