The exosomes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and may be potentially used as an alternative for cell therapy, for treating diabetic wounds, and aid in angiogenesis. This study, aimed to investigate whether exosomes originated from bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) preconditioned by deferoxamine (DFO-Exos) exhibited superior proangiogenic property in wound repair and to explore the underlying mechanisms involved. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for assays involving cell proliferation, scratch wound healing, and tube formation. To test the effects in vivo, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were established. Two weeks after the procedure, histological analysis was used to measure wound-healing effects, and the neovascularization was evaluated as well. Our findings demonstrated that DFO-Exos activate the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway via miR-126 mediated PTEN downregulation to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro. This contributed to enhanced wound healing and angiogenesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in vivo. Our results suggest that, in cell-free therapies, exosomes derived from DFO preconditioned stem cells manifest increased proangiogenic ability.