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      Sleep Disorders are a Prevalent and Serious Comorbidity in Dry Eye

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          Sleep duration predicts cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

          Aims To assess the relationship between duration of sleep and morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and total cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and results We performed a systematic search of publications using MEDLINE (1966-2009), EMBASE (from 1980), the Cochrane Library, and manual searches without language restrictions. Studies were included if they were prospective, follow-up >3 years, had duration of sleep at baseline, and incident cases of CHD, stroke, or CVD. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled using a random-effect model. Overall, 15 studies (24 cohort samples) included 474 684 male and female participants (follow-up 6.9-25 years), and 16 067 events (4169 for CHD, 3478 for stroke, and 8420 for total CVD). Sleep duration was assessed by questionnaire and incident cases through certification and event registers. Short duration of sleep was associated with a greater risk of developing or dying of CHD (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.22-1.80, P < 0.0001), stroke (1.15, 1.00-1.31, P = 0.047), but not total CVD (1.03, 0.93-1.15, P = 0.52) with no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.95, P = 0.30, and P = 0.46, respectively). Long duration of sleep was also associated with a greater risk of CHD (1.38, 1.15-1.66, P = 0.0005), stroke (1.65, 1.45-1.87, P < 0.0001), and total CVD (1.41, 1.19-1.68, P < 0.0001) with no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.92, P = 0.96, and P = 0.79, respectively). Conclusion Both short and long duration of sleep are predictors, or markers, of cardiovascular outcomes.
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            Automatic sleep/wake identification from wrist activity.

            The purpose of this study was to develop and validate automatic scoring methods to distinguish sleep from wakefulness based on wrist activity. Forty-one subjects (18 normals and 23 with sleep or psychiatric disorders) wore a wrist actigraph during overnight polysomnography. In a randomly selected subsample of 20 subjects, candidate sleep/wake prediction algorithms were iteratively optimized against standard sleep/wake scores. The optimal algorithms obtained for various data collection epoch lengths were then prospectively tested on the remaining 21 subjects. The final algorithms correctly distinguished sleep from wakefulness approximately 88% of the time. Actigraphic sleep percentage and sleep latency estimates correlated 0.82 and 0.90, respectively, with corresponding parameters scored from the polysomnogram (p < 0.0001). Automatic scoring of wrist activity provides valuable information about sleep and wakefulness that could be useful in both clinical and research applications.
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              Mortality associated with sleep duration and insomnia.

              Patients often complain about insufficient sleep or chronic insomnia in the belief that they need 8 hours of sleep. Treatment strategies may be guided by what sleep durations predict optimal survival and whether insomnia might signal mortality risks. In 1982, the Cancer Prevention Study II of the American Cancer Society asked participants about their sleep duration and frequency of insomnia. Cox proportional hazards survival models were computed to determine whether sleep duration or frequency of insomnia was associated with excess mortality up to 1988, controlling simultaneously for demographics, habits, health factors, and use of various medications. Participants were more than 1.1 million men and women from 30 to 102 years of age. The best survival was found among those who slept 7 hours per night. Participants who reported sleeping 8 hours or more experienced significantly increased mortality hazard, as did those who slept 6 hours or less. The increased risk exceeded 15% for those reporting more than 8.5 hours sleep or less than 3.5 or 4.5 hours. In contrast, reports of "insomnia" were not associated with excess mortality hazard. As previously described, prescription sleeping pill use was associated with significantly increased mortality after control for reported sleep durations and insomnia. Patients can be reassured that short sleep and insomnia seem associated with little risk distinct from comorbidities. Slight risks associated with 8 or more hours of sleep and sleeping pill use need further study. Causality is unproven.

                Author and article information

                Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science
                Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
                Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)
                November 01 2018
                November 27 2018
                : 59
                : 14
                : DES143
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                [2 ]Otake Clinic Moon View Eye Center, Yamato, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                © 2018




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