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      UPLC Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Components by Single Marker and Quality Evaluation of Polygala tenuifolia Wild. Extracts

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          The quality control of Polygala tenuifolia Wild. is a major challenge in its clinical application. In this paper, a new strategy for the quality evaluation of P. tenuifolia extracts was verified through reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS) was conducted with 3,6′-disinapoyl sucrose as an internal reference substance. Eight components (i.e., sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, glomeratose A, tenuifoliside A, tenuifoliside B, tenuifoliside C, sibiricaxanthone B, and polygalaxanthone III) were determined based on the relative correction factors. The concentrations of these components were also determined by applying a conventional external standard method. The cosine value confirmed the consistency of the two methods (cosine ratio value >0.999920). Hierarchical cluster analysis, radar plots, and discriminant analysis were performed to classify 23 batches of P. tenuifolia extracts from Shanxi, Hebei, and Shaanxi in China. Results revealed that QAMS combined with radar plots and multivariate data analysis could accurately measure and clearly distinguish the different quality samples of P. tenuifolia. Hence, QAMS is a feasible and promising method for the quality control of P. tenuifolia.

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          Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana.

          The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn (Guttiferae) is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in Southeast Asia. Two xanthones, alpha- and gamma-mangostins, were isolated from the fruit hull of G. mangostana, and both significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and PGE(2) production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The IC(50) values for the inhibition of NO production by alpha- and gamma-mangostins were 12.4 and 10.1 microM, respectively. After iNOS enzyme activity was stimulated by LPS for 12 h, treatment with either alpha- or gamma-mangostin at 5 microg/ml (12.2 and 12.6 microM, respectively) for 24 h did not significantly inhibit NO production. The data show that the inhibitory activities of alpha- and gamma-mangostins are not due to direct inhibition of iNOS enzyme activity. On the other hand, expression of iNOS was inhibited by alpha- and gamma-mangostins in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, but not by COX-2. However, the level of PGE(2) production was reduced by the two xanthones. In an in vivo study, alpha-mangostin significantly inhibited mice carrageenan-induced paw edema. In conclusion, alpha- and gamma-mangostins from G. mangostana are bioactive substances with anti-inflammatory effects.
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            Antidepressant effects of ginseng total saponins in the forced swimming test and chronic mild stress models of depression.

            Ginseng total saponins (GTS) are the major active components of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as a popular tonic herb for 2000 years in Far East countries. In the present study, two classic animal models: the forced swimming test (FST) and the chronic mild stress (CMS) model were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like activities of GTS. It was observed that GTS at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST in mice after 7-day treatment. GTS also reversed the reduction in the sucrose preference index, decrease in locomotor activity as well as prolongation of latency of feeding in the novelty environment displayed by CMS rats. In addition, HPLC-ECD and immunohistochemical staining analysis indicated that the CMS-induced decrease in monoamine neurotransmitter concentration and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus were almost completely reversed by GTS. In conclusion, GTS exerts antidepressant-like effects in two highly specific and predictive animal models of depression. The activity of GTS in antidepression may be mediated partly through enhancing the monoamine neurotransmitter concentration and BDNF expression in the hippocampus.
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              Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana.

              Prenylated xanthones, isolated from the fruit hulls and the edible arils and seeds of Garcinia mangostana, were tested for their antituberculosis potential. Alpha- and beta-mangostins and garcinone B exhibited strong inhibitory effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 6.25 microg/ml. Tri- and tetra-oxygenated xanthones with di-C5 units or with a C5 and a modified C5 groups are essential for high activities. Substitution in the A and C rings has been shown to modify the bioactivity of the compounds.

                Author and article information

                Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
                20 December 2017
                December 2017
                : 22
                : 12
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, Ningxia, China; woshixurui925@ (R.X.); mfyzys@ (F.M.); wpwang2015@ (W.W); fll911215@ (L.F.); gaoxiaojuan0705@ (X.G.); zhaojianjun777@ (J.Z.)
                [2 ]Ningxia Research Center of Modern Hui Medicine Engineering and Technology, Yinchuan 750004, Ningxia, China
                [3 ]Key Laboratory of Hui Ethnic Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Yinchuan 750004, Ningxia, China
                [4 ]Institute of Industrial Crop Research, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fenyang 032200, Shanxi, China; thl2003@
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zwhjzs@ ; Tel.: +86-136-1950-1878; Fax: +86-095-1698-0193
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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