+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Idiopathic central precocious puberty with Prader–Willi syndrome: pubertal development with discontinuation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder that is characterized by obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism. Hypogonadism is characterized by normal luteinizing hormone (LH), high follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), low testosterone, low inhibin B, and relatively low anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Only a few cases of central precocious puberty (CPP) have been reported in PWS, and follow-up for CPP with PWS is not established. Hence, we present a boy with PWS accompanied by CPP. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) therapy was started at 7 years of age, CPP was adequately arrested, and GnRHa therapy was discontinued at 11.3 years of age. Growth hormone (GH) therapy was started at 12 years of age due to inadequate growth. He grew close to his final height, and his testes developed with normal LH, increased FSH, normal testosterone, and reduced AMH corresponding to puberty at 13.5 years of age. The features of 16 patients with PWS with CPP, including our patient, were summarized. Out of seven male patients, five were treated with GnRHa, as well as four out of nine female patients. Out of 16 patients, 6 were assessed with pubertal development over 13 years of age. Pubertal development was considered to be restored in four patients who had GnRHa therapy discontinuation. We should carefully follow-up on pubertal development in CPP. GnRHa therapy is useful for adequate puberty blockage, and pubertal development could be restored with GnRHa therapy discontinuation.

          Learning points
          • Pubertal development in Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) varies from hypogonadism to precocious puberty.

          • Pubertal development assessment based on clinical features and hormone levels is needed in central precocious puberty (CPP) treatment with PWS.

          • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) therapy is useful for CPP with PWS, and pubertal development can be restored with GnRHa therapy discontinuation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references15

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Central precocious puberty caused by mutations in the imprinted gene MKRN3.

          The onset of puberty is first detected as an increase in pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in central precocious puberty. The timing of pubertal development is driven in part by genetic factors, but only a few, rare molecular defects associated with central precocious puberty have been identified. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 40 members of 15 families with central precocious puberty. Candidate variants were confirmed with Sanger sequencing. We also performed quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assays to determine levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) in the hypothalami of mice at different ages. We identified four novel heterozygous mutations in MKRN3, the gene encoding makorin RING-finger protein 3, in 5 of the 15 families; both sexes were affected. The mutations included three frameshift mutations, predicted to encode truncated proteins, and one missense mutation, predicted to disrupt protein function. MKRN3 is a paternally expressed, imprinted gene located in the Prader-Willi syndrome critical region (chromosome 15q11-q13). All affected persons inherited the mutations from their fathers, a finding that indicates perfect segregation with the mode of inheritance expected for an imprinted gene. Levels of Mkrn3 mRNA were high in the arcuate nucleus of prepubertal mice, decreased immediately before puberty, and remained low after puberty. Deficiency of MKRN3 causes central precocious puberty in humans. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Hypogonadism and pubertal development in Prader-Willi syndrome.

            Genital abnormalities and disorders of pubertal development such as hypogonadism are common in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Depending on age, PWS patients present genital hypoplasia and delayed or incomplete gonadal maturation. Nevertheless, only a few evaluations have been made of these findings in this syndrome; in the cases previously reported the diagnosis of PWS has often been based only on clinical criteria and not confirmed by genetic analysis. In this paper we describe both external genital findings and spontaneous pubertal development in 84 patients aged from 2.1 to 35.4 (42 males, 42 females) affected by PWS. Diagnosis was made using the Holm and Cassidy criteria and was confirmed by genetic analysis (methylation test and/or FISH). We evaluated the presence of cryptorchidism, scrotal development, length of penis and volume of testis in males and outlook of labia minora and/or clitoris, age of menarche and features of menses (when present) in females; in both sexes we also evaluated the onset of puberty. All recruited males showed cryptorchidism, which was bilateral in 36 out of 42 patients (86%); 38 patients (90%) underwent orchidopexy. Small testes and scrotal hypoplasia were present in 76% and 69% of cases, respectively. In 76% of females, hypoplasia or absence of labia minora and/or clitoris was described. Spontaneous menarche occurred only in 14/32 cases (44%) over the age of 15 years, but menstrual cycles were often a periodical vaginal spotting. Primary amenorrhea was diagnosed in 56% of cases. Isolated premature pubarche was present in six males and in six females (14% of cases) while one male and two females were affected by precocious puberty (3.6%). Hypogonadism represents a common clinical feature in PWS, confirming the importance of such a major diagnostic criterion. Cryptorchidism was consistently present in all our cases. Patients with PWS commonly fail to spontaneously complete puberty, although some patients may have early pubarche or, more rarely, precocious puberty. In older subjects, hormonal replacement therapy is not always necessary and it must be reserved for selected patients.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Genetics of Prader-Willi syndrome and Prader-Will-Like syndrome

              The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a human imprinting disorder resulting from genomic alterations that inactivate imprinted, paternally expressed genes in human chromosome region 15q11-q13. This genetic condition appears to be a contiguous gene syndrome caused by the loss of at least 2 of a number of genes expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, including SNRPN, MKRN3, MAGEL2, NDN and several snoRNAs, but it is not yet well known which specific genes in this region are associated with this syndrome. Prader-Will-Like syndrome (PWLS) share features of the PWS phenotype and the gene functions disrupted in PWLS are likely to lie in genetic pathways that are important for the development of PWS phenotype. However, the genetic basis of these rare disorders differs and the absence of a correct diagnosis may worsen the prognosis of these individuals due to the endocrine-metabolic malfunctioning associated with the PWS. Therefore, clinicians face a challenge in determining when to request the specific molecular test used to identify patients with classical PWS because the signs and symptoms of PWS are common to other syndromes such as PWLS. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge relating to the genetics of PWS and PWLS, with an emphasis on identification of patients that may benefit from further investigation and genetic screening.

                Author and article information

                Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
                Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
                Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                01 August 2022
                : 2022
                : 22-0244
                [1 ]Department of Pediatrics , Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Pediatrics , The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to H Yagasaki; Email: yagasaki@ 123456mwd.biglobe.ne.jp
                Author information
                © The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License..

                : 02 July 2022
                : 01 August 2022
                Unique/Unexpected Symptoms or Presentations of a Disease
                Unique/Unexpected Symptoms or Presentations of a Disease

                paediatric,male,other,japan,pituitary,testes,puberty,paediatrics,unique/unexpected symptoms or presentations of a disease,august,2022


                Comment on this article