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      Hallazgos Histopatológicos en Piel de Caninos Naturalmente Infectados con Leishmania infantum, Municipio Bolívar, Estado Aragua Translated title: Histopatological Findings in Natural Infected Dogs with Leishmania Infantum, Bolivar Country, Aragua State

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          Abstract

          La Leishmaniasis es una enfermedad metaxénica, de distribución mundial, producida por diversas especies de protozoarios del género Leishmania, transmitida por vectores del género Lutzomyia. Clasificada en cutánea, muco cutánea y visceral, Leishmania infantum es la especie causante del patrón visceral y el canino (Canis familiaris) es su principal reservorio. El tropismo de L. infantum induce la sintomatología y el daño tisular en la leishmaniasis visceral canina (LVC), la cual cursa con la triada sintomatológica (fiebre alta, hepatoesplenomegalia y leucopenia, seguida de pancitopenia), provoca daños locales en el sitio de inoculación, por la interacción parásito-macrófagos regionales y manifestaciones dermatológicas inespecíficas, clínicamente ubicadas dentro de los patrones: asintomáticos, oligosintomáticos y polisintomáticos de la enfermedad. De 14 caninos seropositivos a L. infantum (usando el antígeno rK39), procedentes del municipio Bolívar del estado Aragua, localidades Topo I, Topo II y Las Cumbres de Zamora, a 7 aninales se les tomaron 3 muestras de piel de 10 puntos anatómicos para el estudio histopatológico. Los cortes histológicos para el estudio microscópico, se obtuvieron mediante el empleo de técnicas histológicas de rutina, con la coloración de Hematoxilina- Eosina. Como consecuencia de la infección, se generaron anticuerpos. Clínicamente los animales mostraron patrones asintomáticos u oligosintomáticos, con lesiones inespecíficas en diversas regiones anatómicas. No se evidenciaron cambios celulares; sin embargo, en epidermis se apreciaron zonas con hiperqueratosis, acantosis, e infiltrado neutrofílico en glándulas sudoríparas y sebáceas; en dermis se observó, infiltrado inflamatorio linfohistioplasmocitario y edema intersticial o interfibrilar, en hipodermis se observó neovascularización e inflamación linfoplasmocitaria periductal. No se evidenciaron amastigotes en células fagocíticas.

          Translated abstract

          Leishmaniasis is a metaxenic disease, worldwide distributed. This disease is produced by several species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by vectors (sandflies) of the genus Lutzomyia. Leishmaniasis has been classified in cutaneous, muco-cutaneous, and visceral. Leishmania infantum is the species responsible for the visceral pattern and the canine (Canis familiaris) is the main reservoir. The tropism of L. infantum induces the symptomatology and the tissue damage in canine visceral leishmaniasis, which is characterized by the symptomatic triad of high fever, hepato-splenomegaly and leucopenia, followed by pancitopenia. This disease causes local damage at the site of inoculation due to the interaction between the parasite and the regional macrophages and to nonspecific dermatological manifestations, clinically located within the asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, and polysymptomatic patterns of the disease. In this investigation, a total of 14 canines from Topo I, Topo II, and Las Cumbres de Zamora, from the Bolívar municipality of the State of Aragua, Venezuela, showed seropositivity to L. infantum (using the rK39 antigen). To perform the histopathological study, 7 of them were taken 3 skin samples of 10 anatomical points. The histological sections for the microscopic study were obtained using the hematoxilin-esosin technique. As a result of the infection, antibodies were generated. From the clinical standpoint, the animals showed asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic patterns, with nonspecific lesions in diverse anatomical regions. No cellular changes were evident; however, in the epidermis, areas with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and neutrophilic infiltrate were observed in sweat and sebaceous glands; in the dermis, a lymphohistioplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate and interstitial or interfibrillar edema was detected; in the hypodermis, neovascularization and periductal lymphoplasmatic inflammation was noted. No amastigotes were evident in phagocytic cells.

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          Most cited references28

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          Canine leishmaniasis: epidemiological risk and the experimental model.

          Increasing risk factors are making zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis a growing public health concern in many countries. Domestic dogs constitute the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi, and play a key role in the transmission to humans. New reagents and tools allow the detailed investigation of canine leishmaniasis, permitting the monitoring of the immunological status of dogs in both natural and experimental infections. Such studies are essential to determine the basis of the canine protective immune response and to establish a laboratory model, a significant aspect for the development of vaccines against canine leishmaniasis.
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            Impact of canine control on the epidemiology of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

            Brazil is the only country endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) that regularly conducts epidemiologic and prophylactic control programs that involve the treatment of human cases, insect vector control, and the removal of seropositive infected dogs. This report reviews 60 studies reporting data on the efficacy of these recommended control tools and concludes that in Brazil 1) eradication of the disease in Minas Gerais was achieved by the concomitant use of the three control methods, 2) although seropositivity by an immunofluorescent assay is not completely related to infectiousness, the removal of seropositive dogs leads to a significant reduction of canine and human incidence, 3) improvement of the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used for canine control should optimize the efficacy of control, and 4) although difficult and expensive, the public health dog control campaigns performed in Brazil reduced the incidence of ZVL and should be maintained since treatment of dogs is an unrealistic intervention, both because of its prohibitive cost and relatively poor effectiveness.
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              Protection of dogs from bites of phlebotomine sandflies by deltamethrin collars for control of canine leishmaniasis.

              Dog collars made of PVC plastic impregnated with the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin at 40 mg/g were investigated for their protective efficacy against phlebotomine sandflies. Collared dogs were kept separately (two untreated control dogs lived together) in outdoor enclosures, each with a kennel, in the Cévennes, southern France. To measure sandfly mortality and anti-feeding effects due to the deltamethrin-impregnated collars worn continuously by the dogs for up to 8 months, each dog was periodically sedated and exposed for 2h to 150-200 laboratory-reared Phlebotomus perniciosus females (plus c. 25 males) inside a net (1.2 m square, 1.8 m high) indoors. After dogs were removed from the nets, allowed to recover and returned to their kennels, any dead sandflies were collected from inside the net and counted. Surviving flies were kept overnight, then scored according to whether they were still alive or dead, unfed or blood-fed. From tests 2, 3, 4, 13, 20, 26 and 34 weeks after the dogs began wearing collars, the overall numbers of blood-fed female sandflies recaptured were 75 from two dogs with collars, compared with 1911 from two collarless dogs. Thus, for every 100 flies which fed on collarless dogs, only 4 fed on collared dogs, i.e. the collars protected dogs from 96% of the bites and this activity was maintained for up to 34 weeks. During the same period, the percentage of recaptured female sandflies that had fed on collared dogs was 0-12% compared to 55-95% on collarless dogs. Immediately after dogs were taken out of the nets, 21-60% of flies confined with the collared dogs were found dead, compared to 0-12% with the controls. It is concluded that, at least in the Mediterranean subregion, this insecticidal collar would protect a dog from the majority of sandfly bites and retain a killing effect for a complete sandfly season. Moreover, it seems likely that the use of collars on all dogs in a focus of Leishmania infantum would reduce contact between sandfly vectors and canine reservoir hosts sufficiently to diminish the risk of infection for humans as well as dogs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rfcv
                Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias
                Rev. Fac. Cienc. Vet.
                Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Universidad Central de Venezuela. (Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela )
                0258-6576
                December 2017
                : 58
                : 2
                : 86-95
                Affiliations
                [05] orgnameUniversidad del Zulia orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias
                [03] orgnameUniversidad de Carabobo orgdiv1Escuela de Bioanálisis orgdiv2Departamento Clínico Integral
                [02] orgnameUniversidad de Carabobo orgdiv1Escuela de Bioanálisis orgdiv2Departamento de Ciencias Básicas
                [04] orgnameInstituto de Altos Estudios Dr. Arnoldo Gabaldón orgdiv1Centro de Estudios de Enfermedades Endémicas y de Salud Ambiental orgdiv2Laboratorio de Biología de Vectores y Reservorios
                [01] orgnameUniversidad de Carabobo orgdiv1Escuela de Bioanálisis orgdiv2Departamento de Ciencias Morfofisiológicas
                Article
                S0258-65762017000200005 S0258-6576(17)05800200005
                945f6dd9-8c9f-4cdc-8451-34a8aa812880

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 09 November 2017
                : 22 March 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 10
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Artículos de Investigación

                piel,Leishmaniasis visceral canina,histopathology,skin,Canine Leishmaniasis visceral,histopatología

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