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      Synthesis and properties of biobased epoxy resins. part 1. Glycidylation of flavonoids by epichlorohydrin

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          Measurement of bisphenol A concentrations in human colostrum.

          Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical, has been reported to affect embryos and alter their postnatal development. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of BPA in human colostrum by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the aim of understanding the present status of BPA burden in human breast milk in Shizuoka, Japan. Human colostral samples were collected from 101 healthy mothers within three days after delivery. The BPA concentrations of colostral samples were estimated by ELISA after the acetonitrile extraction and solid phase extraction column purification. BPA in 101 samples was detected in the concentration range of 1-7 ng ml(-1). The mean concentration of BPA was 3.41+/-0.13 (mean+/-SD) ng ml(-1). This is the first demonstration as to what BPA concentrations are in human colostrum. The BPA concentrations in colostrum were higher than those in blood sera samples obtained from healthy women in a previous study. In our study, there was no significant correlation between the concentrations of BPA in colostrum and the age and parity of mothers.
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            Pilot Study of Urinary Biomarkers of Phytoestrogens, Phthalates, and Phenols in Girls

            Background Hormonally active environmental agents have been measured among U.S. children using exposure biomarkers in urine. However, little is known about their variation by race, age, sex, and geography, and no data exist for newly developed biomarkers. Objective Our goal was to characterize relevant, prevalent exposures for a study of female pubertal development. Methods In a pilot study among 90 girls from New York City, New York, Cincinnati, Ohio, and northern California, we measured 25 urinary analytes representing 22 separate agents from three chemical families: phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols. Exposures occur chiefly from the diet and from household or personal care products. Results Participants represented four racial/ethnic groups (Asian, black, Hispanic, white), with mean age of 7.77 years. Most analytes were detectable in > 94% of samples. The highest median concentrations for individual analytes in each family were for enterolactone (298 μg/L), monoethylphthalate (MEP; 83.2 μg/L), and benzophenone-3 (BP3; 14.7 μg/L). Few or no data have been reported previously for four metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), and BP3; these were detected in 67–100% of samples with medians of 1.8–53.2 μg/L. After multivariate adjustment, two analytes, enterolactone and BPA, were higher among girls with body mass index 1,000 μg/L) found for several analytes. They varied by characteristics that may be relevant to development.
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              Molecular theory of rubber elasticity

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry
                J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                0887624X
                May 15 2011
                May 15 2011
                : 49
                : 10
                : 2261-2270
                Article
                10.1002/pola.24659
                946a768a-5999-4dda-9ee7-3e9f0a63a83f
                © 2011

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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