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      Trend analysis of lung cancer mortality and years of life lost (YLL) rate from 1999 to 2016 in Tianjin, China: Does the lung cancer burden in rural areas exceed that of urban areas?


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          The aim of this study was to examine the trends in the mortality rate and years of life lost (YLL) rate of lung cancer in Tianjin, China, during the period from 1999 to 2016.


          Lung cancer death data were obtained from Tianjin residents' all‐cause death monitoring system, which covers the whole population of Tianjin. Crude mortality rate, age‐standardized mortality rate, truncated rate (35–64 years), YLL and age‐standardized YLL rate data were calculated and trends examined.


          From 1999 to 2016, a total of 93 358 lung cancer deaths were reported in Tianjin, which accounted for 38.0% of all cancer deaths (93 358/245744). The crude mortality rate of lung cancer had increased 58.5% from 1999 (40.15/100000) to 2016 (63.64/100000), average annual percent change (AACP) = 2.9%, P < 0.01. However, the age‐standard YLL rate had decreased to 13.3% in 2016 than in 1999, AACP = –0.8%, P < 0.01, with a stable trend in males (AACP = –0.2%), and noticeable decreasing trend in females (AACP = –1.4%). The lung cancer mortality rate (ASRW) in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas in 1999, with a ratio of 1.99:1. However, it was lower in 2016, with the ratio of 0.98:1. For the truncated rate (35–64 years), it had decreased in urban areas compared with rural areas since the year 2013.


          Lung cancer remains the most fatal cancer in Tianjin. However, the age‐standard YLL rate of lung cancer has decreased considerably accompanied by a decline in smoking rate years ago, especially in women and people living in urban areas. Considerable attention is therefore needed in the rural areas where cases of lung cancer are still rapidly increasing.

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          Outdoor Particulate Matter Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

          Background: Particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution was recently designated a Group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This determination was based on the evidence regarding the relationship of PM2.5 and PM10 to lung cancer risk; however, the IARC evaluation did not include a quantitative summary of the evidence. Objective: Our goal was to provide a systematic review and quantitative summary of the evidence regarding the relationship between PM and lung cancer. Methods: We conducted meta-analyses of studies examining the relationship of exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 with lung cancer incidence and mortality. In total, 18 studies met our inclusion criteria and provided the information necessary to estimate the change in lung cancer risk per 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM. We used random-effects analyses to allow between-study variability to contribute to meta-estimates. Results: The meta-relative risk for lung cancer associated with PM2.5 was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.14). The meta-relative risk of lung cancer associated with PM10 was similar, but less precise: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.17). Estimates were robust to restriction to studies that considered potential confounders, as well as subanalyses by exposure assessment method. Analyses by smoking status showed that lung cancer risk associated with PM2.5 was greatest for former smokers [1.44 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.22)], followed by never-smokers [1.18 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.39)], and then current smokers [1.06 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.15)]. In addition, meta-estimates for adenocarcinoma associated with PM2.5 and PM10 were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.83) and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.63), respectively. Conclusion: The results of these analyses, and the decision of the IARC Working Group to classify PM and outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic (Group 1), further justify efforts to reduce exposures to air pollutants that can arise from many sources. Citation: Hamra GB, Guha N, Cohen A, Laden F, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Samet JM, Vineis P, Forastiere F, Saldiva P, Yorifuji T, Loomis D. 2014. Outdoor particulate matter exposure and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:906–911; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408092
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            Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence.

            Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
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              Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies.

              To relate UK national trends since 1950 in smoking, in smoking cessation, and in lung cancer to the contrasting results from two large case-control studies centred around 1950 and 1990. United Kingdom. Hospital patients under 75 years of age with and without lung cancer in 1950 and 1990, plus, in 1990, a matched sample of the local population: 1465 case-control pairs in the 1950 study, and 982 cases plus 3185 controls in the 1990 study. Smoking prevalence and lung cancer. For men in early middle age in the United Kingdom the prevalence of smoking halved between 1950 and 1990 but the death rate from lung cancer at ages 35-54 fell even more rapidly, indicating some reduction in the risk among continuing smokers. In contrast, women and older men who were still current smokers in 1990 were more likely than those in 1950 to have been persistent cigarette smokers throughout adult life and so had higher lung cancer rates than current smokers in 1950. The cumulative risk of death from lung cancer by age 75 (in the absence of other causes of death) rose from 6% at 1950 rates to 16% at 1990 rates in male cigarette smokers, and from 1% to 10% in female cigarette smokers. Among both men and women in 1990, however, the former smokers had only a fraction of the lung cancer rate of continuing smokers, and this fraction fell steeply with time since stopping. By 1990 cessation had almost halved the number of lung cancers that would have been expected if the former smokers had continued. For men who stopped at ages 60, 50, 40, and 30 the cumulative risks of lung cancer by age 75 were 10%, 6%, 3%, and 2%. People who stop smoking, even well into middle age, avoid most of their subsequent risk of lung cancer, and stopping before middle age avoids more than 90% of the risk attributable to tobacco. Mortality in the near future and throughout the first half of the 21st century could be substantially reduced by current smokers giving up the habit. In contrast, the extent to which young people henceforth become persistent smokers will affect mortality rates chiefly in the middle or second half of the 21st century.

                Author and article information

                Thorac Cancer
                Thorac Cancer
                Thoracic Cancer
                John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd (Melbourne )
                03 March 2020
                April 2020
                : 11
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1111/tca.v11.4 )
                : 867-874
                [ 1 ] NCDs Preventive Department Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Tianjin China
                [ 2 ] School of Public Health Tianjin Medical University Tianjin China
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Guohong Jiang, Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 6 Huayue Road, Hedong District, Tianjin 300011, China.

                Tel: 86‐22‐24332385

                Fax: 86‐22‐24332385

                Email: jghcdc@ 123456126.com

                © 2020 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 8, Words: 5002
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                April 2020
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.8 mode:remove_FC converted:01.04.2020

                lung cancer,mortality,risk factors,trend,yll
                lung cancer, mortality, risk factors, trend, yll


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