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      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An expanded review

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          Abstract

          Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses the simple steatosis to more progressive steatosis with associated hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a growing epidemic, not only in the United States, but worldwide in part due to obesity and insulin resistance leading to liver accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids. Numerous risk factors for the development of NAFLD have been espoused with most having some form of metabolic derangement or insulin resistance at the core of its pathophysiology. NAFLD patients are at increased risk of liver-related as well as cardiovascular mortality, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for definitive diagnosis, but the development of noninvasive advanced imaging, biochemical and genetic tests will no doubt provide future clinicians with a great deal of information and opportunity for enhanced understanding of the pathogenesis and targeted treatment. As it currently stands several medications/supplements are being used in the treatment of NAFLD; however, none seem to be the “magic bullet” in curtailing this growing problem yet. In this review we summarized the current knowledge of NAFLD epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathologic changes, natural history, and treatment in order to aid in further understanding this disease and better managing NAFLD patients.

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          Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

          Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of a history of significant alcohol use or other known liver disease. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the progressive form of NAFLD. The Pathology Committee of the NASH Clinical Research Network designed and validated a histological feature scoring system that addresses the full spectrum of lesions of NAFLD and proposed a NAFLD activity score (NAS) for use in clinical trials. The scoring system comprised 14 histological features, 4 of which were evaluated semi-quantitatively: steatosis (0-3), lobular inflammation (0-2), hepatocellular ballooning (0-2), and fibrosis (0-4). Another nine features were recorded as present or absent. An anonymized study set of 50 cases (32 from adult hepatology services, 18 from pediatric hepatology services) was assembled, coded, and circulated. For the validation study, agreement on scoring and a diagnostic categorization ("NASH," "borderline," or "not NASH") were evaluated by using weighted kappa statistics. Inter-rater agreement on adult cases was: 0.84 for fibrosis, 0.79 for steatosis, 0.56 for injury, and 0.45 for lobular inflammation. Agreement on diagnostic category was 0.61. Using multiple logistic regression, five features were independently associated with the diagnosis of NASH in adult biopsies: steatosis (P = .009), hepatocellular ballooning (P = .0001), lobular inflammation (P = .0001), fibrosis (P = .0001), and the absence of lipogranulomas (P = .001). The proposed NAS is the unweighted sum of steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. In conclusion, we present a strong scoring system and NAS for NAFLD and NASH with reasonable inter-rater reproducibility that should be useful for studies of both adults and children with any degree of NAFLD. NAS of > or =5 correlated with a diagnosis of NASH, and biopsies with scores of less than 3 were diagnosed as "not NASH."
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            Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity.

            Despite the increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its pathogenesis and clinical significance remain poorly defined. In this study, we examined and compared the distribution of hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in 2,287 subjects from a multiethnic, population-based sample (32.1% white, 48.3% black, and 17.5% Hispanic) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. HTGC varied over a wide range (0.0%-41.7%; median, 3.6%) in the population. Almost one third of the population had hepatic steatosis, and most subjects with hepatic steatosis had normal levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (79%). The frequency of hepatic steatosis varied significantly with ethnicity (45% in Hispanics; 33% in whites; 24% in blacks) and sex (42% in white men; 24% in white women). The higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis in Hispanics was due to the higher prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in this ethnic group. However, the lower frequency of hepatic steatosis in blacks was not explained by ethnic differences in body mass index, insulin resistance, ethanol ingestion, or medication use. The prevalence of hepatic steatosis was greater in men than women among whites, but not in blacks or Hispanics. The ethnic differences in the frequency of hepatic steatosis in this study mirror those observed previously for NAFLD-related cirrhosis (Hispanics > whites > blacks). In conclusion, the significant ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of hepatic steatosis documented in this study may have a profound impact on susceptibility to steatosis-related liver disease.
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              Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a proposal for grading and staging the histological lesions.

              Steatohepatitis is a morphological pattern of liver injury that may be seen in alcoholic or nonalcoholic liver disease. This pattern may occur with obesity, diabetes, the use of certain drugs, or the cause may be idiopathic. The well-recognized histopathological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) include hepatocellular steatosis and ballooning, mixed acute and chronic lobular inflammation, and zone 3 perisinusoidal fibrosis. Currently, there are no systems for grading necroinflammatory activity or for staging fibrosis as exist for various other forms of chronic liver disease. The purpose of this study was to develop such a grading and staging system and was based on review of liver biopsies from 51 patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis from Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center. For determination of grade, 10 histological variables of activity were initially analyzed; an overall impression of mild, moderate, and severe was made and the variables considered to be most significant were used to develop the necroinflammatory grade. The histological lesions considered to be significant were: steatosis, ballooning, and intra-acinar and portal inflammation. A staging score was developed to reflect both location and extent of fibrosis. The fibrosis score was derived from the extent of zone 3 perisinusoidal fibrosis with possible additional portal/periportal fibrosis and architectural remodeling. Fibrosis stages are as follows: Stage 1, zone 3 perisinusoidal fibrosis; Stage 2, as above with portal fibrosis; Stage 3, as above with bridging fibrosis; and Stage 4, cirrhosis. We propose a grading and staging system that reflects the unique histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                World J Hepatol
                WJH
                World Journal of Hepatology
                Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
                1948-5182
                8 June 2017
                8 June 2017
                : 9
                : 16
                : 715-732
                Affiliations
                Mark Benedict, Xuchen Zhang, Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, United States
                Author notes

                Author contributions: Benedict M wrote the paper; Zhang X edited, revised and contributed with conceptual development.

                Correspondence to: Xuchen Zhang, MD, PhD, Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, 310 Cedar Street, LH 108, PO Box 208023, New Haven, CT 06520, United States. xuchen.zhang@ 123456yale.edu

                Telephone: +1-203-7856010 Fax: +1-203-7872922

                Article
                jWJH.v9.i16.pg715
                10.4254/wjh.v9.i16.715
                5468341
                ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

                This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.

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