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      The Application of Molecular Spectroscopy in Combination with Chemometrics for Halal Authentication Analysis: A Review

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          Halal is an Arabic term used to describe any components allowed to be used in any products by Muslim communities. Halal food and halal pharmaceuticals are any food and pharmaceuticals which are safe and allowed to be consumed according to Islamic law (Shariah). Currently, in line with halal awareness, some Muslim countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, and Middle East regions have developed some standards and regulations on halal products and halal certification. Among non-halal components, the presence of pig derivatives (lard, pork, and porcine gelatin) along with other non-halal meats (rat meat, wild boar meat, and dog meat) is typically found in food and pharmaceutical products. This review updates the recent application of molecular spectroscopy, including ultraviolet-visible, infrared, Raman, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, in combination with chemometrics of multivariate analysis, for analysis of non-halal components in food and pharmaceutical products. The combination of molecular spectroscopic-based techniques and chemometrics offers fast and reliable methods for screening the presence of non-halal components of pig derivatives and non-halal meats in food and pharmaceutical products.

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          Most cited references 75

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          Supervised pattern recognition in food analysis.

          Data analysis has become a fundamental task in analytical chemistry due to the great quantity of analytical information provided by modern analytical instruments. Supervised pattern recognition aims to establish a classification model based on experimental data in order to assign unknown samples to a previously defined sample class based on its pattern of measured features. The basis of the supervised pattern recognition techniques mostly used in food analysis are reviewed, making special emphasis on the practical requirements of the measured data and discussing common misconceptions and errors that might arise. Applications of supervised pattern recognition in the field of food chemistry appearing in bibliography in the last two years are also reviewed.
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            Food authentication: Techniques, trends & emerging approaches

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              Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applied to food safety.

              Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an advanced Raman technique that enhances the vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed on or in the vicinity of metal particles and/or surfaces. Because of its readiness, sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation requirements, SERS is being considered as a powerful technique for food inspection. Key aspects of food-safety assurance, spectroscopy methods, and SERS are briefly discussed in an extended introduction of this review. The recent and potential advances in SERS are highlighted in sections that deal with the (a) detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms and (b) the detection of food contaminants and adulteration, concentrated specifically on antibiotics, drugs, hormones, melamine, and pesticides. This review provides an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for food-safety assessment.

                Author and article information

                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                21 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 21
                : 14
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
                [2 ]Institute of Halal Industry and Systems (IHIS), Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
                [3 ]Research Division for Natural Product Technology (BPTBA), Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Yogyakarta 55861, Indonesia; anjarwindarsih2@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: abdulkimfar@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +62-274-543-120
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Molecular biology

                authentication, chemometrics, food and pharmaceutical, halal, molecular spectroscopy


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