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      Fabrication of Intragastric Floating, Controlled Release 3D Printed Theophylline Tablets Using Hot-Melt Extrusion and Fused Deposition Modeling

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          Abstract

          This work presents a novel approach for producing gastro-retentive floating tablets (GRFT) by coupling hot-melt extrusion (HME) and fused deposition three-dimensional printing (3DP). Filaments containing theophylline (THEO) within a hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) matrix were prepared using HME. 3DP tablets with different infill percentages and shell thickness were developed and evaluated to determine their drug content, floating behavior, dissolution, and physicochemical properties. The dissolution studies revealed a relationship between the infill percentage/shell thickness and the drug release behavior of the 3DP tablets. All the developed GRFTs possessed the ability to float for 10 h and exhibited zero-order release kinetics. The drug release could be described by the Peppas–Sahlin model, as a combination of Fickian diffusion and swelling mechanism. Drug crystallinity was found unaltered throughout the process. 3DP coupled with HME, could be an effective blueprint to produce controlled-release GRFTs, providing the advantage of simplicity and versatility compared to the conventional methods.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Mechanisms of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers

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            Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences.

            Nearing 30 years since its introduction, 3D printing technology is set to revolutionize research and teaching laboratories. This feature encompasses the history of 3D printing, reviews various printing methods, and presents current applications. The authors offer an appraisal of the future direction and impact this technology will have on laboratory settings as 3D printers become more accessible.
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              Improving drug solubility for oral delivery using solid dispersions.

               C Leuner (2000)
              The solubility behaviour of drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects in formulation development. With the advent of combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening, the number of poorly water soluble compounds has dramatically increased. Although solid solutions have tremendous potential for improving drug solubility, 40 years of research have resulted in only a few marketed products using this approach. With the introduction of new manufacturing technologies such as hot melt extrusion, it should be possible to overcome problems in scale-up and for this reason solid solutions are enjoying a renaissance. This article begins with an overview of the historical background and definitions of the various systems including eutectic mixtures, solid dispersions and solid solutions. The remainder of the article is devoted to the production, the different carriers and the methods used for the characterization of solid dispersions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharmaceutics
                Pharmaceutics
                pharmaceutics
                Pharmaceutics
                MDPI
                1999-4923
                17 January 2020
                January 2020
                : 12
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Pharmacy & Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea; giribhupen77@ 123456gmail.com (B.R.G.); djstn0424@ 123456naver.com (E.S.S.); kjw11156@ 123456naver.com (J.K.)
                [2 ]College of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul 01795, Korea; jelly_3004@ 123456naver.com (J.-H.L.); junji4@ 123456gmail.com (J.-B.P.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: dkim17@ 123456knu.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-53-950-8579; Fax: +82-53-950-8557
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                pharmaceutics-12-00077
                10.3390/pharmaceutics12010077
                7022551
                31963484
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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