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      A dicer-independent miRNA biogenesis pathway that requires Ago catalysis

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          Abstract

          The nucleolytic activity of animal Argonaute proteins is deeply conserved, despite its having no obvious role in microRNA-directed gene regulation. In mice, Ago2 (also known as Eif2c2) is uniquely required for viability, and only this family member retains catalytic competence. To investigate the evolutionary pressure to conserve Argonaute enzymatic activity, we engineered a mouse with catalytically inactive Ago2 alleles. Homozygous mutants died shortly after birth with an obvious anaemia. Examination of microRNAs and their potential targets revealed a loss of miR-451, a small RNA important for erythropoiesis. Though this microRNA is processed by Drosha (also known as Rnasen), its maturation does not require Dicer. Instead, the pre-miRNA becomes loaded into Ago and is cleaved by the Ago catalytic centre to generate an intermediate 3' end, which is then further trimmed. Our findings link the conservation of Argonaute catalysis to a conserved mechanism of microRNA biogenesis that is important for vertebrate development.

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          Most cited references39

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          Argonaute2 is the catalytic engine of mammalian RNAi.

          Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is carried out by RISC, the RNA-induced silencing complex. RISC contains two signature components, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Argonaute family proteins. Here, we show that the multiple Argonaute proteins present in mammals are both biologically and biochemically distinct, with a single mammalian family member, Argonaute2, being responsible for messenger RNA cleavage activity. This protein is essential for mouse development, and cells lacking Argonaute2 are unable to mount an experimental response to siRNAs. Mutations within a cryptic ribonuclease H domain within Argonaute2, as identified by comparison with the structure of an archeal Argonaute protein, inactivate RISC. Thus, our evidence supports a model in which Argonaute contributes "Slicer" activity to RISC, providing the catalytic engine for RNAi.
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            RNA interference is mediated by 21- and 22-nucleotide RNAs.

            Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing in many organisms by a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). Using a Drosophila in vitro system, we demonstrate that 21- and 22-nt RNA fragments are the sequence-specific mediators of RNAi. The short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are generated by an RNase III-like processing reaction from long dsRNA. Chemically synthesized siRNA duplexes with overhanging 3' ends mediate efficient target RNA cleavage in the lysate, and the cleavage site is located near the center of the region spanned by the guiding siRNA. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the direction of dsRNA processing determines whether sense or antisense target RNA can be cleaved by the siRNA-protein complex.
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              MicroRNA-directed cleavage of HOXB8 mRNA.

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 22-nucleotide RNAs, some of which are known to play important regulatory roles in animals by targeting the messages of protein-coding genes for translational repression. We find that miR-196, a miRNA encoded at three paralogous locations in the A, B, and C mammalian HOX clusters, has extensive, evolutionarily conserved complementarity to messages of HOXB8, HOXC8, and HOXD8. RNA fragments diagnostic of miR-196-directed cleavage of HOXB8 were detected in mouse embryos. Cell culture experiments demonstrated down-regulation of HOXB8, HOXC8, HOXD8, and HOXA7 and supported the cleavage mechanism for miR-196-directed repression of HOXB8. These results point to a miRNA-mediated mechanism for the posttranscriptional restriction of HOX gene expression during vertebrate development and demonstrate that metazoan miRNAs can repress expression of their natural targets through mRNA cleavage in addition to inhibiting productive translation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                June 2010
                April 27 2010
                June 2010
                : 465
                : 7298
                : 584-589
                Article
                10.1038/nature09092
                2995450
                20424607
                94e61ebe-5d66-4120-88db-07dfc47cd77b
                © 2010

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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