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      Health Message Framing Effects on Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior: A Meta-analytic Review

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      Annals of Behavioral Medicine
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          Message framing has been an important focus in health communication research, yet prior meta-analyses found limited support for using framing to increase persuasiveness of health messages. This meta-analysis distinguished the outcomes used to assess the persuasive impact of framed messages (attitudes, intentions, or behavior). One hundred eighty-nine effect sizes were identified from 94 peer-reviewed, published studies which compared the persuasive impact of gain- and loss-framed messages. Gain-framed messages were more likely than loss-framed messages to encourage prevention behaviors (r = 0.083, p = 0.002), particularly for skin cancer prevention, smoking cessation, and physical activity. No effect of framing was found when persuasion was assessed by attitudes/intentions or among studies encouraging detection. Gain-framed messages appear to be more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting prevention behaviors. Research should examine the contexts in which loss-framed messages are most effective, and the processes that mediate the effects of framing on behavior.

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          Most cited references124

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          Operating Characteristics of a Rank Correlation Test for Publication Bias

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              Efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour: A meta-analytic review

              The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) has received considerable attention in the literature. The present study is a quantitative integration and review of that research. From a database of 185 independent studies published up to the end of 1997, the TPB accounted for 27% and 39% of the variance in behaviour and intention, respectively. The perceived behavioural control (PBC) construct accounted for significant amounts of variance in intention and behaviour, independent of theory of reasoned action variables. When behaviour measures were self-reports, the TPB accounted for 11% more of the variance in behaviour than when behaviour measures were objective or observed (R2s = .31 and .21, respectively). Attitude, subjective norm and PBC account for significantly more of the variance in individuals' desires than intentions or self-predictions, but intentions and self-predictions were better predictors of behaviour. The subjective norm construct is generally found to be a weak predictor of intentions. This is partly attributable to a combination of poor measurement and the need for expansion of the normative component. The discussion focuses on ways in which current TPB research can be taken forward in the light of the present review.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annals of Behavioral Medicine
                ann. behav. med.
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0883-6612
                1532-4796
                February 2012
                October 13 2011
                February 2012
                : 43
                : 1
                : 101-116
                Article
                10.1007/s12160-011-9308-7
                21993844
                94e8ab70-02c6-4183-9637-196fbed2970c
                © 2012
                History

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