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      Urinary Copper Excretion in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the degree of urinary copper excretion and stages of diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Copper, ceruloplasmin and albumin concentrations were measured in serum and urine samples from 41 type 2 diabetic outpatients with different stages of nephropathy and from 10 healthy controls. The copper/albumin and copper/ceruloplasmin ratios in serum and urine were determined. Furthermore, we examined whether free copper ions are dissociated from ceruloplasmin under various pH conditions. Results: Urinary copper concentrations significantly increased only in macroalbuminuric patients. The copper/ceruloplasmin and copper/albumin ratios in urine were consistently greater than those in serum which were not different between patients and healthy controls except the copper/albumin ratio in macroalbuminuric patients. The ratios in urine decreased in parallel with the progression of nephropathy. Copper was found to be released from ceruloplasmin under acidic conditions. Conclusion: Urinary copper excretion in healthy controls may be the result of dissociation from the albumin-copper complex of serum during its passage through the kidney. In diabetic patients with advanced nephropathy, urinary copper excretion may be due to dissociations from both copper-albumin and ceruloplasmin-copper complexes filtered through the damaged glomerulus. Overloading of urinary copper to damaged renal tubules may play some roles in the progression of nephropathy in patients with advanced nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 5

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          The case for intrarenal hypertension in the initiation and progression of diabetic and other glomerulopathies.

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            New occupational risk factors for chronic renal failure.

            Occupational pollutants may have a role in development of chronic renal failure (CRF). Most epidemiological studies have been cross-sectional, limited to certain renal diagnoses, or concentrated on early transient renal effects. In a case-control study, we examined the association between CRF and occupational exposure. Occupational histories of 272 men and women with CRF (of all types) were compared with those of 272 controls matched for age, sex, and region of residence. Exposures were assessed and degree and frequency were scored independently by three industrial hygienists unaware of case/control status. Significantly increased risks of CRF were found for exposure to lead (odds ratio 2.11 [95% CI 1.23-4.36]), copper (2.54 [1.16-5.53]), chromium (2.77 [1.21-6.33]), tin (3.72 [1.22-11.3]), mercury (5.13 [1.02-25.7]), welding fumes (2.06 [1.05-4.04]), silicon-containing compounds (2.51 [1.37-4.60]), grain dust (2.96 [1.24-7.04]), and oxygenated hydrocarbons (5.45 [1.84-16.2]). The frequencies of various occupational exposures were high among patients with diabetic nephropathy. This epidemiological study confirms previously identified risk factors and suggests that additional occupational exposures, for which there is some other experimental evidence, may be important in the development of CRF. The role of grain dust and the association between occupational exposure and diabetic nephropathy merit further investigation.
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              Serum and urinary lipoproteins in the human nephrotic syndrome: Evidence for renal catabolism of lipoproteins

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2001
                2001
                25 July 2001
                : 88
                : 4
                : 307-312
                Affiliations
                Departments of aGeriatric Medicine and bBiochemistry, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita, Japan
                Article
                46013 Nephron 2001;88:307–312
                10.1159/000046013
                11474224
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 38, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46013
                Categories
                Original Paper

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