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      Liposomal flucytosine capped with gold nanoparticle formulations for improved ocular delivery

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          Abstract

          Nanoliposomes have an organized architecture that provides versatile functions. In this study, liposomes were used as an ocular carrier for nanogold capped with flucytosine antifungal drug. Gold nanoparticles were used as a contrasting agent that provides tracking of the drug to the posterior segment of the eye for treating fungal intraocular endophthalmitis. The nanoliposomes were prepared with varying molar ratios of lecithin, cholesterol, Span 60, a positive charge inducer (stearylamine), and a negative charge inducer (dicetyl phosphate). Formulation F6 (phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, Span 60, and stearylamine at a molar ratio of 1:1:1:0.15) demonstrated the highest extent of drug released, which reached 7.043 mg/h. It had a zeta potential value of 42.5±2.12 mV and an average particle size approaching 135.1±12.0 nm. The ocular penetration of the selected nanoliposomes was evaluated in vivo using a computed tomography imaging technique. It was found that F6 had both the highest intraocular penetration depth (10.22±0.11 mm) as measured by the computed tomography and the highest antifungal efficacy when evaluated in vivo using 32 infected rabbits’ eyes. The results showed a strong correlation between the average intraocular penetration of the nanoparticles capped with flucytosine and the percentage of the eyes healed. After 4 weeks, all the infected eyes (n=8) were significantly healed ( P<0.01) when treated with liposomal formulation F6. Overall, the nanoliposomes encapsulating flucytosine have been proven efficient in treating the infected rabbits’ eyes, which proves the efficiency of the nanoliposomes in delivering both the drug and the contrasting agent to the posterior segment of the eye.

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          Most cited references 70

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          PEG-modified gold nanorods with a stealth character for in vivo applications.

          Gold nanorods prepared in hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution are expected to provide novel materials for photothermal therapy and photo-controlled drug delivery systems. Since gold nanorods stabilized with CTAB show strong cytotoxicity, we developed a technique to modify these with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) for medical applications. PEG-modification was achieved by adding mPEG-SH in the CTAB solution, then, excess CTAB was removed by dialysis. PEG-modified gold nanoparticles showed a nearly neutral surface, and had little cytotoxicity in vitro. Following intravenous injection into mice, 54% of injected PEG-modified gold nanoparticles were found in blood at 0.5 h after intravenous injection, whereas most of gold was detected in the liver in the case of original gold nanorods stabilized with CTAB.
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            Computed tomographic measurements of airway dimensions and emphysema in smokers. Correlation with lung function.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction caused by emphysema or airway narrowing, or both. Low attenuation areas (LAA) on computed tomography (CT) have been shown to represent macroscopic or microscopic emphysema, or both. However CT has not been used to quantify the airway abnormalities in smokers with or without airflow obstruction. In this study, we used CT to evaluate both emphysema and airway wall thickening in 114 smokers. The CT measurements revealed that a decreased FEV(1) (%predicted) is associated with an increase of airway wall area and an increase of emphysema. Although both airway wall thickening and emphysema (LAA) correlated with measurements of lung function, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the combination of airway and emphysema measurements improved the estimate of pulmonary function test abnormalities. We conclude that both CT measurements of airway dimensions and emphysema are useful and complementary in the evaluation of the lung of smokers.
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              A fluorescence-based method for determining the surface coverage and hybridization efficiency of thiol-capped oligonucleotides bound to gold thin films and nanoparticles.

              Using a fluorescence-based method, we have determined the number of thiol-derivatized single-stranded oligonucleotides bound to gold nanoparticles and their extent of hybridization with complementary oligonucleotides in solution. Oligonucleotide surface coverages of hexanethiol 12-mer oligonucleotides on gold nanoparticles (34 +/- 1 pmol/cm2) were significantly higher than on planar gold thin films (18 +/- 3 pmol/cm2), while the percentage of hybridizable strands on the gold nanoparticles (1.3 +/- 0.3 pmol/cm2, 4%) was lower than for gold thin films (6 +/- 2 pmol/cm2, 33%). A gradual increase in electrolyte concentration over the course of oligonucleotide deposition significantly increases surface coverage and consequently particle stability. In addition, oligonucleotide spacer sequences improve the hybridization efficiency of oligonucleotide-modified nanoparticles from approximately 4 to 44%. The surface coverage of recognition strands can be tailored using coadsorbed diluent oligonucleotides. This provides a means of indirectly controlling the average number of hybridized strands per nanoparticle. The work presented here has important implications with regard to understanding interactions between modified oligonucleotides and metal nanoparticles, as well as optimizing the sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based oligonucleotide detection methods.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                13 January 2016
                : 10
                : 277-295
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
                [2 ]Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
                [3 ]Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, El-Minia, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Heba F Salem, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62511, Egypt, Tel +20 1 0933 2419, Fax +20 8 2233 3367, Email heba_salem2004@ 123456yahoo.co.uk
                Article
                dddt-10-277
                10.2147/DDDT.S91730
                4716745
                26834459
                © 2016 Salem et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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