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Depression and Advanced Complications of Diabetes : A prospective cohort study

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      Abstract

      OBJECTIVETo prospectively examine the association of depression with risks for advanced macrovascular and microvascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA longitudinal cohort of 4,623 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes was enrolled in 2000–2002 and followed through 2005–2007. Advanced microvascular complications included blindness, end-stage renal disease, amputations, and renal failure deaths. Advanced macrovascular complications included myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular procedures, and deaths. Medical record review, ICD-9 diagnostic and procedural codes, and death certificate data were used to ascertain outcomes in the 5-year follow-up. Proportional hazard models analyzed the association between baseline depression and risks of adverse outcomes.RESULTSAfter adjustment for prior complications and demographic, clinical, and diabetes self-care variables, major depression was associated with significantly higher risks of adverse microvascular outcomes (hazard ratio 1.36 [95% CI 1.05–1.75]) and adverse macrovascular outcomes (1.24 [1.0–1.54]).CONCLUSIONSAmong people with type 2 diabetes, major depression is associated with an increased risk of clinically significant microvascular and macrovascular complications over the ensuing 5 years, even after adjusting for diabetes severity and self-care activities. Clinical and public health significance of these findings rises as the incidence of type 2 diabetes soars. Further research is needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms for this association and to test interventions to reduce the risk of diabetes complications among patients with comorbid depression.

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      Most cited references 24

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      The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.

      While considerable attention has focused on improving the detection of depression, assessment of severity is also important in guiding treatment decisions. Therefore, we examined the validity of a brief, new measure of depression severity. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the PRIME-MD diagnostic instrument for common mental disorders. The PHQ-9 is the depression module, which scores each of the 9 DSM-IV criteria as "0" (not at all) to "3" (nearly every day). The PHQ-9 was completed by 6,000 patients in 8 primary care clinics and 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics. Construct validity was assessed using the 20-item Short-Form General Health Survey, self-reported sick days and clinic visits, and symptom-related difficulty. Criterion validity was assessed against an independent structured mental health professional (MHP) interview in a sample of 580 patients. As PHQ-9 depression severity increased, there was a substantial decrease in functional status on all 6 SF-20 subscales. Also, symptom-related difficulty, sick days, and health care utilization increased. Using the MHP reinterview as the criterion standard, a PHQ-9 score > or =10 had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 88% for major depression. PHQ-9 scores of 5, 10, 15, and 20 represented mild, moderate, moderately severe, and severe depression, respectively. Results were similar in the primary care and obstetrics-gynecology samples. In addition to making criteria-based diagnoses of depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 is also a reliable and valid measure of depression severity. These characteristics plus its brevity make the PHQ-9 a useful clinical and research tool.
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        Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study.

        To determine the relation between exposure to glycaemia over time and the risk of macrovascular or microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Prospective observational study. 23 hospital based clinics in England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. 4585 white, Asian Indian, and Afro-Caribbean UKPDS patients, whether randomised or not to treatment, were included in analyses of incidence; of these, 3642 were included in analyses of relative risk. Primary predefined aggregate clinical outcomes: any end point or deaths related to diabetes and all cause mortality. Secondary aggregate outcomes: myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation (including death from peripheral vascular disease), and microvascular disease (predominantly retinal photo-coagulation). Single end points: non-fatal heart failure and cataract extraction. Risk reduction associated with a 1% reduction in updated mean HbA(1c) adjusted for possible confounders at diagnosis of diabetes. The incidence of clinical complications was significantly associated with glycaemia. Each 1% reduction in updated mean HbA(1c) was associated with reductions in risk of 21% for any end point related to diabetes (95% confidence interval 17% to 24%, P<0.0001), 21% for deaths related to diabetes (15% to 27%, P<0.0001), 14% for myocardial infarction (8% to 21%, P<0.0001), and 37% for microvascular complications (33% to 41%, P<0.0001). No threshold of risk was observed for any end point. In patients with type 2 diabetes the risk of diabetic complications was strongly associated with previous hyperglycaemia. Any reduction in HbA(1c) is likely to reduce the risk of complications, with the lowest risk being in those with HbA(1c) values in the normal range (<6.0%).
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          Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire.

          The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was developed as a screening instrument but its administration time has limited its clinical usefulness. To determine if the self-administered PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) has validity and utility for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD. Criterion standard study undertaken between May 1997 and November 1998. Eight primary care clinics in the United States. Of a total of 3000 adult patients (selected by site-specific methods to avoid sampling bias) assessed by 62 primary care physicians (21 general internal medicine, 41 family practice), 585 patients had an interview with a mental health professional within 48 hours of completing the PHQ. Patient Health Questionnaire diagnoses compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; health care use; and treatment/referral decisions. A total of 825 (28%) of the 3000 individuals and 170 (29%) of the 585 had a PHQ diagnosis. There was good agreement between PHQ diagnoses and those of independent mental health professionals (for the diagnosis of any 1 or more PHQ disorder, kappa = 0.65; overall accuracy, 85%; sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 90%), similar to the original PRIME-MD. Patients with PHQ diagnoses had more functional impairment, disability days, and health care use than did patients without PHQ diagnoses (for all group main effects, P<.001). The average time required of the physician to review the PHQ was far less than to administer the original PRIME-MD (<3 minutes for 85% vs 16% of the cases). Although 80% of the physicians reported that routine use of the PHQ would be useful, new management actions were initiated or planned for only 117 (32%) of the 363 patients with 1 or more PHQ diagnoses not previously recognized. Our study suggests that the PHQ has diagnostic validity comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD, and is more efficient to use.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Group Health Research Institute, Group Health, Seattle, Washington;
            2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington;
            3Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington;
            4Epidemiologic Research and Information Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington;
            5Department of Medicine/Dermatology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington.
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: Elizabeth H.B. Lin, lin.e@ 123456ghc.org .
            Journal
            Diabetes Care
            diacare
            dcare
            Diabetes Care
            Diabetes Care
            American Diabetes Association
            0149-5992
            1935-5548
            February 2010
            23 November 2009
            : 33
            : 2
            : 264-269
            2809260
            19933989
            1068
            10.2337/dc09-1068
            © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association.

            Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

            Product
            Funding
            Funded by: National Institutes of Health
            Award ID: MH 073686
            Award ID: MH 073686
            Categories
            Original Research
            Clinical Care/Education/Nutrition/Psychosocial Research

            Endocrinology & Diabetes

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