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      Antibiotic resistance: What is so special about multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria? Translated title: Antibiotikaresistenz: Was ist so besonders an den Gram-negativen multiresistenten Bakterien?

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          Abstract

          In the past years infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have dramatically increased in all parts of the world. This consensus paper is based on presentations, subsequent discussions and an appraisal of current literature by a panel of international experts invited by the Rudolf Schülke Stiftung, Hamburg. It deals with the epidemiology and the inherent properties of Gram-negative bacteria, elucidating the patterns of the spread of antibiotic resistance, highlighting reservoirs as well as transmission pathways and risk factors for infection, mortality, treatment and prevention options as well as the consequences of their prevalence in livestock. Following a global, One Health approach and based on the evaluation of the existing knowledge about these pathogens, this paper gives recommendations for prevention and infection control measures as well as proposals for various target groups to tackle the threats posed by Gram-negative bacteria and prevent the spread and emergence of new antibiotic resistances.

          Zusammenfassung

          In den letzten Jahren haben die durch multiresistente Gram-negative Bakterien (MRGN) verursachten Infektionen in allen Teilen der Welt dramatisch zugenommen. Der vorliegende Konsensus basiert auf Vorträgen mit sich anschließenden Diskussionen und späterer Auswertung der einschlägigen Literatur durch ein internationales Expertengremium, das von der Rudolf Schülke Stiftung, Hamburg, zu dem Meeting nach Hamburg eingeladen worden war. Im Fokus standen die Epidemiologie und die besonderen Eigenschaften Gram-negativer Bakterien, die Ausbreitung der Antibiotikaresistenz, die Reservoire, Übertragungswege und Risikofaktoren für Infektionen, die Mortalität, die Therapie und die Möglichkeiten der Prävention einschließlich der Konsequenzen des Vorkommens in der industriellen Tierhaltung. Dem One Health Ansatz folgend und basierend auf der Bewertung des Wissensstandes zu diesen Erregern werden Empfehlungen zur Prävention und Bekämpfung sowie Vorschläge für verschiedene Zielgruppen unterbreitet, um der Bedrohung durch MRGN zu begegnen, ihre Ausbreitung zu verhindern und die Entstehung neuer Antibiotikaresistenzen zu unterbinden.

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          Most cited references 196

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          Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance.

          Many different definitions for multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacteria are being used in the medical literature to characterize the different patterns of resistance found in healthcare-associated, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. A group of international experts came together through a joint initiative by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to create a standardized international terminology with which to describe acquired resistance profiles in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae (other than Salmonella and Shigella), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., all bacteria often responsible for healthcare-associated infections and prone to multidrug resistance. Epidemiologically significant antimicrobial categories were constructed for each bacterium. Lists of antimicrobial categories proposed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were created using documents and breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). MDR was defined as acquired non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories, XDR was defined as non-susceptibility to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories (i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two categories) and PDR was defined as non-susceptibility to all agents in all antimicrobial categories. To ensure correct application of these definitions, bacterial isolates should be tested against all or nearly all of the antimicrobial agents within the antimicrobial categories and selective reporting and suppression of results should be avoided. © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. No claim to original US government works.
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            Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study.

            Until now, polymyxin resistance has involved chromosomal mutations but has never been reported via horizontal gene transfer. During a routine surveillance project on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from food animals in China, a major increase of colistin resistance was observed. When an E coli strain, SHP45, possessing colistin resistance that could be transferred to another strain, was isolated from a pig, we conducted further analysis of possible plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance. Herein, we report the emergence of the first plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance mechanism, MCR-1, in Enterobacteriaceae.
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              The bacterial cell envelope.

              The bacteria cell envelope is a complex multilayered structure that serves to protect these organisms from their unpredictable and often hostile environment. The cell envelopes of most bacteria fall into one of two major groups. Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a thin peptidoglycan cell wall, which itself is surrounded by an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide. Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane but are surrounded by layers of peptidoglycan many times thicker than is found in the gram-negatives. Threading through these layers of peptidoglycan are long anionic polymers, called teichoic acids. The composition and organization of these envelope layers and recent insights into the mechanisms of cell envelope assembly are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                GMS Hyg Infect Control
                GMS Hyg Infect Control
                GMS Hyg Infect Control
                GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
                German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
                2196-5226
                10 April 2017
                2017
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Bonn University, Bonn, Germany
                [2 ]Tata Medical Center, Kolkata, India
                [3 ]Department of Internal Hygiene, Schleswig-Holstein University Hospital, Kiel, Germany
                [4 ]Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany
                [5 ]Departement Environnement et Santé Publique S.E.R.E.S., Faculté de Médecine, Nancy, France
                [6 ]Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Tübingen, Germany
                [7 ]Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Germany
                [8 ]School of Nursing, Columbia University, New York, USA
                [9 ]Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, USA
                [10 ]Robert Koch Institute (RKI), Berlin, Germany
                [11 ]Hospital Hygiene, Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany
                [12 ]Hygiene Institute, Medical University Vienna, Austria
                [13 ]Institute of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
                [14 ]Department of Hospital Hygiene, Stuttgart Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Martin Exner, Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Bonn University, WHO CC, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn, Gemany, Phone: +49 228 287 15520, E-mail: martin.exner@ 123456ukb.uni-bonn.de
                Article
                dgkh000290 Doc05 urn:nbn:de:0183-dgkh0002900
                10.3205/dgkh000290
                5388835
                Copyright © 2017 Exner et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. See license information at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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