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Prevalence of short stature, underweight, overweight, and obesity among school children in Jordan

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      BackgroundThe prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6–17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control’s (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated.ResultsThe Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones.ConclusionsVariations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.

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      Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010.

      The prevalence of childhood obesity increased in the 1980s and 1990s but there were no significant changes in prevalence between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008 in the United States. To present the most recent estimates of obesity prevalence in US children and adolescents for 2009-2010 and to investigate trends in obesity prevalence and body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents between 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Cross-sectional analyses of a representative sample (N = 4111) of the US child and adolescent population (birth through 19 years of age) with measured heights and weights from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Prevalence of high weight-for-recumbent length (≥95th percentile on the growth charts) among infants and toddlers from birth to 2 years of age and obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile of the BMI-for-age growth charts) among children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years. Analyses of trends in obesity by sex and race/ethnicity, and analyses of trends in BMI within sex-specific age groups for 6 survey periods (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010) over 12 years. In 2009-2010, 9.7% (95% CI, 7.6%-12.3%) of infants and toddlers had a high weight-for-recumbent length and 16.9% (95% CI, 15.4%-18.4%) of children and adolescents from 2 through 19 years of age were obese. There was no difference in obesity prevalence among males (P = .62) or females (P = .65) between 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. However, trend analyses over a 12-year period indicated a significant increase in obesity prevalence between 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 in males aged 2 through 19 years (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10) but not in females (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.07) per 2-year survey cycle. There was a significant increase in BMI among adolescent males aged 12 through 19 years (P = .04) but not among any other age group or among females. In 2009-2010, the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents was 16.9%; this was not changed compared with 2007-2008.
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        Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children.

        Childhood obesity is associated with serious health problems and the risk of premature illness and death later in life. Monitoring related trends is important. The objective was to quantify the worldwide prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children on the basis of the new World Health Organization standards. A total of 450 nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from 144 countries were analyzed. Overweight and obesity were defined as the proportion of preschool children with values >2 SDs and >3 SDs, respectively, from the World Health Organization growth standard median. Being "at risk of overweight" was defined as the proportion with values >1 SD and ≤2 SDs, respectively. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to estimate the rates and numbers of affected children. In 2010, 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight and obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight. The worldwide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 4.2% (95% CI: 3.2%, 5.2%) in 1990 to 6.7% (95% CI: 5.6%, 7.7%) in 2010. This trend is expected to reach 9.1% (95% CI: 7.3%, 10.9%), or ≈60 million, in 2020. The estimated prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Africa in 2010 was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.4%, 9.5%) and is expected to reach 12.7% (95% CI: 10.6%, 14.8%) in 2020. The prevalence is lower in Asia than in Africa (4.9% in 2010), but the number of affected children (18 million) is higher in Asia. Childhood overweight and obesity have increased dramatically since 1990. These findings confirm the need for effective interventions starting as early as infancy to reverse anticipated trends.
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          Early appraisal of China's huge and complex health-care reforms.

          China's 3 year, CN¥850 billion (US$125 billion) reform plan, launched in 2009, marked the first phase towards achieving comprehensive universal health coverage by 2020. The government's undertaking of systemic reform and its affirmation of its role in financing health care together with priorities for prevention, primary care, and redistribution of finance and human resources to poor regions are positive developments. Accomplishing nearly universal insurance coverage in such a short time is commendable. However, transformation of money and insurance coverage into cost-effective services is difficult when delivery of health care is hindered by waste, inefficiencies, poor quality of services, and scarcity and maldistribution of the qualified workforce. China must reform its incentive structures for providers, improve governance of public hospitals, and institute a stronger regulatory system, but these changes have been slowed by opposition from stakeholders and lack of implementation capacity. The pace of reform should be moderated to allow service providers to develop absorptive capacity. Independent, outcome-based monitoring and evaluation by a third-party are essential for mid-course correction of the plans and to make officials and providers accountable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]School of Medicine, University of Jordan, PO Box 13046, Amman, 11942 Jordan
            [2 ]Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, PO Box 13046, Amman, 11942 Jordan
            [3 ]Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Jordan/Jordan University Hospital, PO Box 13046, Amman, 11942 Jordan
            Contributors
            00962798504465 , baraaayman@gmail.com
            0096265355000 , abdallah.beano@gmail.com
            0096265355000 , faris1991@hotmail.com
            0096265355000 , sohab_radwan@hotmail.com
            0096265355000 , suhaib.allauzy@yahoo.com
            0096265355000 , m3tasem.992@hotmail.com
            0096265355000 , zaid.dahabreh@yahoo.com
            0096265355000 , ygalhasan@gmail.com
            0096265355000-23357 , ayousef@ju.edu.jo
            Journal
            BMC Public Health
            BMC Public Health
            BMC Public Health
            BioMed Central (London )
            1471-2458
            3 October 2016
            3 October 2016
            2016
            : 16
            27716150
            5048690
            3687
            10.1186/s12889-016-3687-4
            © The Author(s). 2016

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Categories
            Research Article
            Custom metadata
            © The Author(s) 2016

            Public health

            school children, obesity, overweight, underweight, short stature, jordan

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