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      Deep-sea clawed lobster Nephropsis stewarti Wood-Mason, 1872 species complex in the Indo-West Pacific (Crustacea, Decapoda, Nephropidae), with description of a new species

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      Deep-sea, DNA barcoding, lobster, taxonomy

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          Nephropsis stewarti Wood-Mason, 1872 is the most common species of the deep-sea clawed lobster genus Nephropsis Wood-Mason, 1872 in the Indo-West Pacific. Morphological comparisons and genetic analyses of extensive material referred to this lobster revealed the presence of three species. The three species differ mainly in body size, development of the intermediate carina on the carapace, position of the lateral pair of rostral teeth, whether the pleonal tergum is granulate, and the spination on the large chelipeds. Nephropsis stewarti is restricted to the western central Indian Ocean, and a neotype is selected to fix its identity. The name Nephropsis grandis Zarenkov, 2006 is revived with neotype selection for the large form found in the West Pacific and northwestern Australia. The smaller form from southern Taiwan and the Philippines is described as Nephropsis pygmaea sp. nov.

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          Most cited references 39

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Evolutionary history of true crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) and the origin of freshwater crabs.

            Crabs of the infra-order Brachyura are one of the most diverse groups of crustaceans with approximately 7,000 described species in 98 families, occurring in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. The relationships among the brachyuran families are poorly understood due to the high morphological complexity of the group. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive phylogeny of Brachyura to date using sequence data of six nuclear protein-coding genes and two mitochondrial rRNA genes from more than 140 species belonging to 58 families. The gene tree confirms that the "Podotremata," are paraphyletic. Within the monophyletic Eubrachyura, the reciprocal monophyly of the two subsections, Heterotremata and Thoracotremata, is supported. Monophyly of many superfamilies, however, is not recovered, indicating the prevalence of morphological convergence and the need for further taxonomic studies. Freshwater crabs were derived early in the evolution of Eubrachyura and are shown to have at least two independent origins. Bayesian relaxed molecular methods estimate that freshwater crabs separated from their closest marine sister taxa ~135 Ma, that is, after the break up of Pangaea (∼200 Ma) and that a Gondwanan origin of these freshwater representatives is untenable. Most extant families and superfamilies arose during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.
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              Host-associated speciation in the coral barnacle Wanella milleporae (Cirripedia: Pyrgomatidae) inhabiting the Millepora coral.

              Speciation by host shift is a common phenomenon observed in many symbiotic animals. The symbiont-host interaction is highly dynamic, but it is poorly documented in the marine realm. In the present study, we examined the genetic and morphological differentiation of the coral barnacle Wanella milleporae (obligate to fire corals) collected from four different Millepora host species in Taiwan to investigate the host specificity of this barnacle. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial COI gene for 241 individuals of Wanella revealed five distinct clades, whose sequence divergences are comparable to values between other cogeneric barnacle species. The five clades also differ in shell and opercular plate morphology and colour. Genetic and morphological differentiations together strongly suggest the presence of cryptic species. Although the five clades do not display species-level host specificity, they showed a significant difference in preference on host growth form. Clades 1 and 2 were predominantly found on encrusting Millepora exaesa and Millepora platyphylla, while clades 3, 4 and 5 live exclusively on branching-form fire corals Millepora dichotoma and Millepora tenella. Phylogeny inferred from the combined mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S (2182 bp) analysis suggests the division of the five clades into two major lineages congruent with the morphology of the host coral. Multiple independent invasions to the same form of host and subsequent speciation are evident in the Red Sea and Taiwan. Our results indicate that ecological/sympatric speciation could occur in marine symbiotic invertebrates through host shift and specialization. It appears that, as in their terrestrial counterparts, host-symbiont radiations in the marine realm are more prevalent than we expected and thus warrant further investigation.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                31 December 2020
                : 1008
                : 37-60
                [1 ] Department of Biological Resources, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, R.O.C., Taiwan National Chiayi University Chiayi Taiwan
                [2 ] Institute of Marine Biology and Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, R.O.C., Taiwan National Taiwan Ocean University Keelung Taiwan
                [3 ] Department of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala, India University of Kerala Kerala India
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Tin-Yam Chan ( tychan@ 123456mail.ntou.edu.tw )

                Academic editor: C. Magalhães

                Su-Ching Chang, Tin-Yam Chan, Appukuttannair Biju Kumar

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Article

                Animal science & Zoology

                taxonomy, deep-sea, dna barcoding, lobster


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