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      Morphogenesis: a focus on marine invertebrates

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 1 , , 1 , 2 , 3

      Marine Life Science & Technology

      Springer

      Ascidian, Morphogenesis, Sea anemone, Sea urchin

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          Abstract

          Morphogenesis is a process describing how the shapes of living tissues and bodies are created during development. Living and fossil organisms exhibit enormously diverse tissue architecture and body forms, although the functions of organs are evolutionally conserved. Current knowledge reveals that relatively conserved mechanisms are applied to control development among different species. However, the regulations of morphogenesis are quite diverse in detail. Animals in the ocean display a wide range of diversity of morphology suitable for their seawater environment. Nevertheless, compared with the intensive studies on terrestrial animals, research on marine animal morphogenesis is still insufficient. The increasing genomic data and the recently available gene editing methods, together with the fast development of imaging techniques, quantitative analyses and biophysical models, provide us the opportunities to have a deeper understanding of the principles that drive the diverse morphogenetic processes in marine animals. In this review, we summarize the recent studies of morphogenesis and evolution at molecular, cellular and tissue levels, with a focus on three model marine animals, namely ascidians, sea urchins and sea anemones.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          MLST
          Marine Life Science & Technology
          Springer (China )
          2096-6490
          2662-1746
          01 November 2019
          25 November 2019
          : 1
          : 1
          : 28-40
          Affiliations
          1Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
          2Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
          3Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
          4Institute for Developmental Biochemistry, Medical School, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: Bo Dong, E-mail: bodong@ 123456ouc.edu.cn
          Article
          s42995-019-00016-z
          10.1007/s42995-019-00016-z
          © 2019 The Author(s)

          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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          Self URI (journal-page): https://www.springer.com/journal/42995
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