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      Lead optimization for promising monoamine oxidase inhibitor from eugenol for the treatment of neurological disorder: synthesis and in silico based study

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          Abstract

          Natural based inhibitors of monoamine oxidase are promising drug candidates for the treatment of several neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders including depression, anxiety, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study we designed and synthesized the eugenol based derivatives and investigated them for human MAO inhibitory potential as promising candidates for therapeutics of neurological disorders. Moreover, radical scavenging activity of designed derivatives was tested by and H 2O 2 and DPPH scavenging methods. Eugenol based derivatives were designed and synthesized for human MAO inhibitory action. The in silico and in vitro models were utilized for the evaluation of hMAO inhibition. The insight into molecular interactions among the compounds and both hMAO-A and hMAO-B active site was achieved by molecular docking studies. The two spectrophotometric titrations techniques were used to evaluate antioxidant potential. Compounds 5b and 16 were found as most active hMAO-A inhibitors with IC 50 values of 5.989 ± 0.007 µM and 7.348 ± 0.027 µM respectively, through an appreciable selectivity index value of 0.19 and 0.14 respectively. In case of hMAO-B inhibition compounds 13a and 13b were found as most active hMAO-B inhibitors with IC 50 values of 7.494 ± 0.014 µM and 9.183 ± 0.034 µM receptively and outstanding value of selectivity index of 5.14 and 5.72 respectively. Radical scavenging assay showed that compounds 5b, 5a, 9b, 9a were active antioxidants. The findings of present study indicated excellent correlation among dry lab and wet lab hMAO inhibitory experiments. Interestingly, the compounds exhibiting better MAO inhibition activity was also appeared as good antioxidant agents.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration.

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            Structure and function of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids.

            As a major component of plant specialized metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways provide anthocyanins for pigmentation, flavonoids such as flavones for protection against UV photodamage, various flavonoid and isoflavonoid inducers of Rhizobium nodulation genes, polymeric lignin for structural support and assorted antimicrobial phytoalexins. As constituents of plant-rich diets and an assortment of herbal medicinal agents, the phenylpropanoids exhibit measurable cancer chemopreventive, antimitotic, estrogenic, antimalarial, antioxidant and antiasthmatic activities. The health benefits of consuming red wine, which contains significant amounts of 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol) and other phenylpropanoids, highlight the increasing awareness in the medical community and the public at large as to the potential dietary importance of these plant derived compounds. As recently as a decade ago, little was known about the three-dimensional structure of the enzymes involved in these highly branched biosynthetic pathways. Ten years ago, we initiated X-ray crystallographic analyses of key enzymes of this pathway, complemented by biochemical and enzyme engineering studies. We first investigated chalcone synthase (CHS), the entry point of the flavonoid pathway, and its close relative stilbene synthase (STS). Work soon followed on the O-methyl transferases (OMTs) involved in modifications of chalcone, isoflavonoids and metabolic precursors of lignin. More recently, our groups and others have extended the range of phenylpropanoid pathway structural investigations to include the upstream enzymes responsible for the initial recruitment of phenylalanine and tyrosine, as well as a number of reductases, acyltransferases and ancillary tailoring enzymes of phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites. These structure-function studies collectively provide a comprehensive view of an important aspect of phenylpropanoid metabolism. More specifically, these atomic resolution insights into the architecture and mechanistic underpinnings of phenylpropanoid metabolizing enzymes contribute to our understanding of the emergence and on-going evolution of specialized phenylpropanoid products, and underscore the molecular basis of metabolic biodiversity at the chemical level. Finally, the detailed knowledge of the structure, function and evolution of these enzymes of specialized metabolism provide a set of experimental templates for the enzyme and metabolic engineering of production platforms for diverse novel compounds with desirable dietary and medicinal properties.
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              Structure of human monoamine oxidase B, a drug target for the treatment of neurological disorders.

              Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) is a mitochondrial outermembrane flavoenzyme that is a well-known target for antidepressant and neuroprotective drugs. We determined the structure of the human enzyme to 3 A resolution. The enzyme binds to the membrane through a C-terminal transmembrane helix and apolar loops located at various positions in the sequence. The electron density shows that pargyline, an analog of the clinically used MAO B inhibitor, deprenyl, binds covalently to the flavin N5 atom. The active site of MAO B consists of a 420 A(3)-hydrophobic substrate cavity interconnected to an entrance cavity of 290 A(3). The recognition site for the substrate amino group is an aromatic cage formed by Tyr 398 and Tyr 435. The structure provides a framework for probing the catalytic mechanism, understanding the differences between the B- and A-monoamine oxidase isoforms and designing specific inhibitors.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                priyankamdurtk@gmail.com
                neelammdurtk@gmail.com
                anuragpharmacy@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Chem
                BMC Chem
                BMC Chemistry
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                2661-801X
                26 March 2019
                26 March 2019
                December 2019
                : 13
                : 1
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0004 1790 2262, GRID grid.411524.7, Laboratory for Preservation Technology and Enzyme Inhibition Studies, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, , M. D. University, ; Rohtak, Haryana 124001 India
                Article
                552
                10.1186/s13065-019-0552-4
                6661809
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2019

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