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      Role of Oxidative Stress and Reduced Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide in Diabetic Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Persistent hyperglycemia lead towards depletion of hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) resulting in generation of oxidative stress and diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the current study was to explore the antioxidant potential of H 2S and captopril, a -SH containing compound in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy.

          Methods

          Fifty four Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats male (200–250g) were divided into nine groups (n=6) with each group injected once with STZ (60mg/kg i.p) except normal control. After 3 weeks of induction of diabetes, groups were assigned as normal control, diabetic control, diabetic-captopril, diabetic-NaHS, diabetic-captopril-NaHS, diabetic-spironolactone, diabetic-metformin, diabetic-metformin-NaHS and diabetic-vitamin-c. All the animals were served with normal saline (N/S 4mL/kg p.o), captopril (50mg/kg/day p.o), sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (56µmol/kg i.p), spironolactone (50mg/kg/day s.c), metformin (500mg/kg/day p.o) and vitamin-c (50mg/kg p.o) on daily basis for next 4 weeks, respectively. Metabolic studies, H 2S levels, renal hemodynamics and oxidative stress markers were analyzed at 0, 14 and 28 days followed by histopathological analysis of renal tissues.

          Results

          The results showed decreased H 2S levels, body weight, sodium to potassium ratio, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant assay (T-AOC) with malondialdehyde (MDA) and blood glucose levels significantly increased among diabetic rats. Treatment with captopril, NaHS, metformin, spironolactone and vitamin C showed significant improvement among renal hemodynamics and oxidative stress markers, respectively. But treatment groups like NaHS in combination with captopril and metformin showed more pronounced effects.

          Conclusion

          The observations suggest that H 2S mediated protective effects on STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy may be associated with reduced oxidative stress via augmenting the antioxidant effect.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Antioxidant activity of a flavonoid-rich extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro.

          A flavonoid-rich extract of Hypericum perforatum L. (FEHP) was prepared by adsorption on macroporous resin and desorption by ethanol. Total flavonoid content of FEHP was determined by a colorimetric method. The major constituents of FEHP, including rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, quercitrin, and quercetin, were determined by HPLC analysis and confirmed by LC-MS. Different antioxidant assays were utilized to evaluate free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of FEHP. FEHP was an effective scavenger in quenching DPPH and superoxide radical with IC50 of 10.63 microg/mL and 54.3 microg/mL, respectively. A linear correlation between concentration of FEHP and reducing power was observed with a coefficient of r2 = 0.9991. Addition of 150 microg of FEHP obviously decreased the peroxidation of linoleic acid during 84 h incubation, but the amount of FEHP over 150 microg did not show statistically significant inhibitory effect of peroxidation of linoliec acid (p > 0.05). FEHP exhibited inhibitory effect of peroxidation of liposome induced both by hydroxyl radical generated with iron-ascorbic acid system and peroxyl radical and showed prominent inhibitory effect of deoxyribose degradation in a concentration-dependent manner in site-specific assay but poor effect in non-site-specific assay, which suggested that chelation of metal ion was the main antioxidant action. According to the results obtained in the present study, the antioxidant mechanism of FEHP might be attributed to its free radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation activity, and reactive oxygen quenching activity.
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            Antioxidant properties in vitro and total phenolic contents in methanol extracts from medicinal plants

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              Assessment of myeloperoxidase activity in whole rat kidney.

              A method to quantitate myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity from rat whole kidney is described. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration into tissue is a hallmark of acute inflammation. Historically, the degree of inflammation has been quantified by the identification and enumeration of PMNs histologically or by some other means. More recently, the enzyme activity of MPO, a marker enzyme for PMN, and freshly emigrated monocytes in many inflamed tissues has replaced these methods. The kidney, however, has been identified as a tissue from which MPO cannot be measured. Indeed, kidney homogenized by a standard extraction procedure was devoid of MPO activity. We modified the established methodology so that kidney was homogenized in 5 mM potassium phosphate buffer (PB) first and then centrifuged at 30,000 g for 30 min at 4 degrees C prior to extraction. The resulting 30,000 g pellets expressed MPO activity after suspending them in 50 mM PB containing 0.5% hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide (HTAB). Interference in the assay was observed with supernatants from control and inflamed kidney, which appeared to be due to kidney-derived material forming a complex with HTAB. After washing the pellets twice, we noted that their extracts exhibited greater activity, and interference from supernatants was abolished. Using this method, we observed that acutely inflamed kidneys from rats treated with sheep nephrotoxic immunoglobulin G (IgG) had significantly elevated MPO activity over kidneys from control rats. Thus, the described technique allows for the routine assay of MPO in kidney tissue.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                05 March 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 1031-1043
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur , Bahawalpur, Pakistan
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur , Bahawalpur, Pakistan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fiaz-ud-Din Ahmad Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Khawaja Fareed Campus , Railway Road, Bahawalpur, 63100, PakistanTel +92-320-8402376 Email fazi2670@gmail.com
                Article
                291591
                10.2147/DDDT.S291591
                7943325
                © 2021 Hussain Lodhi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 18, References: 33, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Research

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