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Perindopril: the evidence of its therapeutic impact in hypertension

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Core Evidence

Dove Medical Press

coronary artery disease, evidence-based review, hypertension, perindopril

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      Abstract

      Introduction:

      Effective antihypertensive therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and death. Perindopril, a long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, is an established antihypertensive agent administered as a once-daily tablet.

      Aims:

      To review recent evidence for the use of perindopril in the treatment of hypertension.

      Evidence review:

      Evidence shows that perindopril alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents can achieve clinically significant reductions in blood pressure after 12 weeks of treatment. There is strong evidence from large randomized studies that perindopril-based therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality, in patients with coronary artery disease and those who have had a prior stroke or transient ischemic attack. There is also some evidence that these effects are greater than those achieved by blood pressure reduction alone, suggesting other drug-related effects including improvements in endothelial function. Recent results have also shown that an amlodipine ± perindopril regimen prevented more major cardiovascular events than an atenolol-based regimen in patients with hypertension, as a result of better control of blood pressure. Economic evidence from one major study shows that, for most patients, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained with perindopril 8 mg was lower than the threshold value of €20 000 (73–92% of patients) in Europe or £20 000 (94% of patients) in the UK.

      Clinical value:

      There is strong evidence supporting the use of perindopril-based therapy for the treatment of hypertension and reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death in a wide range of patients with stable coronary artery disease or hypertension.

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      Most cited references 49

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      The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report.

      "The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure" provides a new guideline for hypertension prevention and management. The following are the key messages(1) In persons older than 50 years, systolic blood pressure (BP) of more than 140 mm Hg is a much more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP; (2) The risk of CVD, beginning at 115/75 mm Hg, doubles with each increment of 20/10 mm Hg; individuals who are normotensive at 55 years of age have a 90% lifetime risk for developing hypertension; (3) Individuals with a systolic BP of 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic BP of 80 to 89 mm Hg should be considered as prehypertensive and require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent CVD; (4) Thiazide-type diuretics should be used in drug treatment for most patients with uncomplicated hypertension, either alone or combined with drugs from other classes. Certain high-risk conditions are compelling indications for the initial use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers); (5) Most patients with hypertension will require 2 or more antihypertensive medications to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease); (6) If BP is more than 20/10 mm Hg above goal BP, consideration should be given to initiating therapy with 2 agents, 1 of which usually should be a thiazide-type diuretic; and (7) The most effective therapy prescribed by the most careful clinician will control hypertension only if patients are motivated. Motivation improves when patients have positive experiences with and trust in the clinician. Empathy builds trust and is a potent motivator. Finally, in presenting these guidelines, the committee recognizes that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount.
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        Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data.

        Reliable information about the prevalence of hypertension in different world regions is essential to the development of national and international health policies for prevention and control of this condition. We aimed to pool data from different regions of the world to estimate the overall prevalence and absolute burden of hypertension in 2000, and to estimate the global burden in 2025. We searched the published literature from Jan 1, 1980, to Dec 31, 2002, using MEDLINE, supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies of retrieved articles. We included studies that reported sex-specific and age-specific prevalence of hypertension in representative population samples. All data were obtained independently by two investigators with a standardised protocol and data-collection form. Overall, 26.4% (95% CI 26.0-26.8%) of the adult population in 2000 had hypertension (26.6% of men [26.0-27.2%] and 26.1% of women [25.5-26.6%]), and 29.2% (28.8-29.7%) were projected to have this condition by 2025 (29.0% of men [28.6-29.4%] and 29.5% of women [29.1-29.9%]). The estimated total number of adults with hypertension in 2000 was 972 million (957-987 million); 333 million (329-336 million) in economically developed countries and 639 million (625-654 million) in economically developing countries. The number of adults with hypertension in 2025 was predicted to increase by about 60% to a total of 1.56 billion (1.54-1.58 billion). Hypertension is an important public-health challenge worldwide. Prevention, detection, treatment, and control of this condition should receive high priority.
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          Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies.

          The age-specific relevance of blood pressure to cause-specific mortality is best assessed by collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from the separate prospective studies. Information was obtained on each of one million adults with no previous vascular disease recorded at baseline in 61 prospective observational studies of blood pressure and mortality. During 12.7 million person-years at risk, there were about 56000 vascular deaths (12000 stroke, 34000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 10000 other vascular) and 66000 other deaths at ages 40-89 years. Meta-analyses, involving "time-dependent" correction for regression dilution, related mortality during each decade of age at death to the estimated usual blood pressure at the start of that decade. Within each decade of age at death, the proportional difference in the risk of vascular death associated with a given absolute difference in usual blood pressure is about the same down to at least 115 mm Hg usual systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 75 mm Hg usual diastolic blood pressure (DBP), below which there is little evidence. At ages 40-69 years, each difference of 20 mm Hg usual SBP (or, approximately equivalently, 10 mm Hg usual DBP) is associated with more than a twofold difference in the stroke death rate, and with twofold differences in the death rates from IHD and from other vascular causes. All of these proportional differences in vascular mortality are about half as extreme at ages 80-89 years as at ages 40-49 years, but the annual absolute differences in risk are greater in old age. The age-specific associations are similar for men and women, and for cerebral haemorrhage and cerebral ischaemia. For predicting vascular mortality from a single blood pressure measurement, the average of SBP and DBP is slightly more informative than either alone, and pulse pressure is much less informative. Throughout middle and old age, usual blood pressure is strongly and directly related to vascular (and overall) mortality, without any evidence of a threshold down to at least 115/75 mm Hg.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Core Medical Publishing, Knutsford, UK
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Paul Chrisp, Core Medical Publishing, Mere House, Brook Street, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 8GP, UK or at editor@ 123456coreevidence.com
            Journal
            Core Evid
            Core Evidence
            Core Evidence
            Dove Medical Press
            1555-1741
            1555-175X
            2007
            2007
            31 March 2007
            : 2
            : 1
            : 63-79
            3012553
            21221198
            ce-2-063
            © 2007 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
            Categories
            Clinical Impact Review

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