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      Regulation of Blood Pressure by Dopamine Receptors

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          Abstract

          Dopamine is an important regulator of blood pressure. Its actions on renal hemodynamics, epithelial transport and humoral agents such as aldosterone, catecholamines, endothelin, prolactin, pro-opiomelanocortin, renin and vasopressin place it in central homeostatic position for regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Dopamine also modulates fluid and sodium intake via actions in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, and by regulation of cardiovascular centers that control the functions of the heart, arteries and veins. Abnormalities in dopamine production and receptor function accompany a high percentage of human essential hypertension and several forms of rodent genetic hypertension. Some dopamine receptor genes and their regulators are in loci linked to hypertension in humans and in rodents. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes that regulate dopamine receptors, alone or via the interaction with SNPs of genes that regulate the renin-angiotensin system, are associated with human essential hypertension. Each of the five dopamine receptor subtypes (D<sub>1</sub>, D<sub>2</sub>, D<sub>3</sub>, D<sub>4</sub> and D<sub>5</sub>) participates in the regulation of blood pressure by mechanisms specific for the subtype. Some receptors (D<sub>2</sub> and D<sub>5</sub>) influence the central and/or peripheral nervous system; others influence epithelial transport and regulate the secretion and receptors of several humoral agents (e.g., the D<sub>1</sub>, D<sub>3</sub> and D<sub>4</sub> receptors interact with the renin-angiotensin system). Modifications of the usual actions of the receptor can produce blood pressure changes. In addition, abnormal functioning of these dopamine receptor subtypes impairs their antioxidant function.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Molecular mechanisms of human hypertension.

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            Human hypertension caused by mutations in WNK kinases.

             Z Farfel,  B Dussol,  D. Simon (2001)
            Hypertension is a major public health problem of largely unknown cause. Here, we identify two genes causing pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, a Mendelian trait featuring hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Both genes encode members of the WNK family of serine-threonine kinases. Disease-causing mutations in WNK1 are large intronic deletions that increase WNK1 expression. The mutations in WNK4 are missense, which cluster in a short, highly conserved segment of the encoded protein. Both proteins localize to the distal nephron, a kidney segment involved in salt, K+, and pH homeostasis. WNK1 is cytoplasmic, whereas WNK4 localizes to tight junctions. The WNK kinases and their associated signaling pathway(s) may offer new targets for the development of antihypertensive drugs.
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              Kinetic stabilization of the alpha-synuclein protofibril by a dopamine-alpha-synuclein adduct.

              The substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD) is depleted of dopaminergic neurons and contains fibrillar Lewy bodies comprising primarily alpha-synuclein. We screened a library to identify drug-like molecules to probe the relation between neurodegeneration and alpha-synuclein fibrilization. All but one of 15 fibril inhibitors were catecholamines related to dopamine. The inhibitory activity of dopamine depended on its oxidative ligation to alpha-synuclein and was selective for the protofibril-to-fibril conversion, causing accumulation of the alpha-synuclein protofibril. Adduct formation provides an explanation for the dopaminergic selectivity of alpha-synuclein-associated neurotoxicity in PD and has implications for current and future PD therapeutic and diagnostic strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2003
                October 2003
                12 November 2003
                : 95
                : 2
                : p19-p27
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPediatrics and Physiology & Biophysics and bDepartment of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C., and cDepartment of Pathology, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Va., USA
                Article
                73676 Nephron Physiol 2003;95:p19–p27
                10.1159/000073676
                14610323
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 117, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/73676
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