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      DNA barcoding of rhopalosomatid larvae reveals a new host record and genetic evidence of a second species of Rhopalosoma Cresson (Hymenoptera, Rhopalosomatidae) in America north of Mexico

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Rhopalosomatidae are unusual wasps whose larvae develop as ectoparasitoids on crickets. In America north of Mexico, three genera and six species are recognized. Host species are known only for Rhopalosoma nearcticum Brues and include Hapithus agitator Uhler, H. brevipennis (Saussure), and H. saltator (Uhler) (Gryllidae: Hapithinae). Here we report a new host species: the Anaxipha exigua (Say) species-group (Trigonidiidae: Trigonidiinae) discovered by barcoding nine rhopalosomatid larvae collected from Cypress Grove Nature Park, Jackson, Tennessee. Rhopalosoma nearcticum is currently the only documented species of Rhopalosoma Cresson in America north of Mexico, but our phylogenetic analyses recovered two genetically distinct clades of Rhopalosoma and thus reveal the presence of at least two species of Rhopalosoma in America north of Mexico.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Testing the reliability of genetic methods of species identification via simulation.

          Although genetic methods of species identification, especially DNA barcoding, are strongly debated, tests of these methods have been restricted to a few empirical cases for pragmatic reasons. Here we use simulation to test the performance of methods based on sequence comparison (BLAST and genetic distance) and tree topology over a wide range of evolutionary scenarios. Sequences were simulated on a range of gene trees spanning almost three orders of magnitude in tree depth and in coalescent depth; that is, deep or shallow trees with deep or shallow coalescences. When the query's conspecific sequences were included in the reference alignment, the rate of positive identification was related to the degree to which different species were genetically differentiated. The BLAST, distance, and liberal tree-based methods returned higher rates of correct identification than did the strict tree-based requirement that the query was within, but not sister to, a single-species clade. Under this more conservative approach, ambiguous outcomes occurred in inverse proportion to the number of reference sequences per species. When the query's conspecific sequences were not in the reference alignment, only the strict tree-based approach was relatively immune to making false-positive identifications. Thresholds affected the rates at which false-positive identifications were made when the query's species was unrepresented in the reference alignment but did not otherwise influence outcomes. A conservative approach using the strict tree-based method should be used initially in large-scale identification systems, with effort made to maximize sequence sampling within species. Once the genetic variation within a taxonomic group is well characterized and the taxonomy resolved, then the choice of method used should be dictated by considerations of computational efficiency. The requirement for extensive genetic sampling may render these techniques inappropriate in some circumstances.
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            Phylogenomic Insights into the Evolution of Stinging Wasps and the Origins of Ants and Bees.

            The stinging wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) are an extremely diverse lineage of hymenopteran insects, encompassing over 70,000 described species and a diversity of life history traits, including ectoparasitism, cleptoparasitism, predation, pollen feeding (bees [Anthophila] and Masarinae), and eusociality (social vespid wasps, ants, and some bees) [1]. The most well-studied lineages of Aculeata are the ants, which are ecologically dominant in most terrestrial ecosystems [2], and the bees, the most important lineage of angiosperm-pollinating insects [3]. Establishing the phylogenetic affinities of ants and bees helps us understand and reconstruct patterns of social evolution as well as fully appreciate the biological implications of the switch from carnivory to pollen feeding (pollenivory). Despite recent advancements in aculeate phylogeny [4-11], considerable uncertainty remains regarding higher-level relationships within Aculeata, including the phylogenetic affinities of ants and bees [5-7]. We used ultraconserved element (UCE) phylogenomics [7, 12] to resolve relationships among stinging-wasp families, gathering sequence data from >800 UCE loci and 187 samples, including 30 out of 31 aculeate families. We analyzed the 187-taxon dataset using multiple analytical approaches, and we evaluated several alternative taxon sets. We also tested alternative hypotheses for the phylogenetic positions of ants and bees. Our results present a highly supported phylogeny of the stinging wasps. Most importantly, we find unequivocal evidence that ants are the sister group to bees+apoid wasps (Apoidea) and that bees are nested within a paraphyletic Crabronidae. We also demonstrate that taxon choice can fundamentally impact tree topology and clade support in phylogenomic inference.
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              Species Delimitation--a Geneious plugin for the exploration of species boundaries.

              Species Delimitation is a plugin to the Geneious software to support the exploration of species boundaries in a gene tree. The user assigns taxa to putative species and the plugin computes statistics relating to the probability of the observed monophyly or exclusivity having occurred by chance in a coalescent process. It also assesses the within and between species genetic distances to infer the probability with which members of a putative species might be identified successfully with tree-based methods. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                December 30 2019
                December 30 2019
                : 74
                : 35-46
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.74.38276
                © 2019

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