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      Efecto de la frecuencia y horario de alimentación sobre la termogénesis inducida por la dieta en humanos, una revisión sistemática Translated title: Effect of feeding frequency and schedules on diet induced thermogenesis in humans, a systematic review

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          Abstract

          Resumen El gasto energético total (GET) tiene tres componentes: el gasto basal, el gasto por actividad física (GAF) y la termogénesis inducida por la dieta (TID). Este último, aunque representa alrededor del 10% del GET, al ser alterado, podría tener efectos a largo plazo sobre el peso corporal. Diferentes factores han mostrado influir sobre la TID, entre ellos la composición de la dieta. Sin embargo, otros factores como la frecuencia y los horarios de alimentación han sido investigados por su papel en la alteración de la TID. Esta revisión sistemática analiza las investigaciones respecto a la frecuencia y los horarios de alimentación y su efecto sobre la TID en humanos. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed y Web of Science, que dio como resultado un total de 542 artículos potenciales. De ellos, se excluyeron 528 en concordancia con los criterios de inclusión, utilizando 14 artículos para esta revisión sistemática. Aunque los resultados son aún incipientes, destacan el efecto de los ritmos circadianos con un incremento de la TID en respuesta a las ingestas matutinas en comparación con las nocturnas, un incremento en la TID posterior a la implementación de frecuencias regulares de alimentación y disminución de la TID posterior a las frecuencias variables. Por último, se observó una tendencia a incremento en la TID cuando los periodos interprandiales son iguales o mayores a dos horas y a disminución cuando son menores. Estos resultados señalan un área de investigación con potencial terapéutico en la prevención y el control del sobrepeso y la obesidad.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Total energy expenditure (TEE) has three components: basal expenditure, physical activity expenditure, and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). This last component, although represents 10% of TEE, if is altered, could have a long-term effect on body weight. Different factors have been shown to influence DIT, including diet composition. However, other factors such as feeding frequency and schedules have been studied for their role in altering DIT. This systematic review explores the research regarding the frequency and timing of feeding and its effect on DIT in humans. A search was made in the PubMed and Web of Science databases, which gave a total of 542 potential articles; 528 were excluded and 14 articles were used for this systematic review in accordance with the inclusion criteria. Although the results are still incipient, the effect of the circadian rhythms that influence the increase of the DIT in response to the morning meal when comparing it with night, as well as the increase in the DIT after the implementation of regular feeding frequencies and decreased DIT after the variable feeding frequencies, stand out. Finally, a tendency to increase in the DIT when the interprandial periods are equal to or greater than two hours and a decrease when these periods are less than two hours were also observed. These results point to a research field with therapeutic potential in the prevention and control of overweight and obesity.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here?

          The obesity epidemic shows no signs of abating. There is an urgent need to push back against the environmental forces that are producing gradual weight gain in the population. Using data from national surveys, we estimate that affecting energy balance by 100 kilocalories per day (by a combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in physical activity) could prevent weight gain in most of the population. This can be achieved by small changes in behavior, such as 15 minutes per day of walking or eating a few less bites at each meal. Having a specific behavioral target for the prevention of weight gain may be key to arresting the obesity epidemic.
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            The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in obese adults12

            Background: The causal nature of associations between breakfast and health remain unclear in obese individuals. Objective: We sought to conduct a randomized controlled trial to examine causal links between breakfast habits and components of energy balance in free-living obese humans. Design: The Bath Breakfast Project is a randomized controlled trial with repeated measures at baseline and follow-up among a cohort in South West England aged 21–60 y with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–derived fat mass indexes of ≥13 kg/m2 for women (n = 15) and ≥9 kg/m2 for men (n = 8). Components of energy balance (resting metabolic rate, physical activity thermogenesis, diet-induced thermogenesis, and energy intake) were measured under free-living conditions with random allocation to daily breakfast (≥700 kcal before 1100) or extended fasting (0 kcal until 1200) for 6 wk, with baseline and follow-up measures of health markers (e.g., hematology/adipose biopsies). Results: Breakfast resulted in greater physical activity thermogenesis during the morning than when fasting during that period (difference: 188 kcal/d; 95% CI: 40, 335) but without any consistent effect on 24-h physical activity thermogenesis (difference: 272 kcal/d; 95% CI: −254, 798). Energy intake was not significantly greater with breakfast than fasting (difference: 338 kcal/d; 95% CI: −313, 988). Body mass increased across both groups over time but with no treatment effects on body composition or any change in resting metabolic rate (stable within 8 kcal/d). Metabolic/cardiovascular health also did not respond to treatments, except for a reduced insulinemic response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test over time with daily breakfast relative to an increase with daily fasting (P = 0.05). Conclusions: In obese adults, daily breakfast leads to greater physical activity during the morning, whereas morning fasting results in partial dietary compensation (i.e., greater energy intake) later in the day. There were no differences between groups in weight change and most health outcomes, but insulin sensitivity increased with breakfast relative to fasting. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN31521726.
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              Decreased thermic effect of food after an irregular compared with a regular meal pattern in healthy lean women.

              To investigate the impact of irregular meal frequency on body weight, energy intake, appetite and resting energy expenditure in healthy lean women. Nine healthy lean women aged 18-42 y participated in a randomised crossover trial consisting of three phases over a total of 43 days. Subjects attended the laboratory at the start and end of phases 1 and 3. In Phase 1 (14 days), subjects were asked to consume similar things as normal, but either on 6 occasions per day (regular meal pattern) or follow a variable predetermined meal frequency (between 3 and 9 meals/day) with the same total number of meals over the week. In Phase 2 (14 days), subjects continued their normal diet as a wash-out period. In Phase 3 (14 days), subjects followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1. Subjects recorded their food intake for three predetermined days during the irregular period when they were eating 9, 3 and 6 meals/day. They also recorded their food intake on the corresponding days during the regular meal pattern period. Subjects fasted overnight prior to each laboratory visit, at which fasting resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry. Postprandial metabolic rate was then measured for 3 h after the consumption of a milkshake test meal (50% CHO, 15% protein and 35% fat of energy content). Subjects rated appetite before and after the test meal. There were no significant differences in body weight and 3-day mean energy intake between the regular and irregular meal pattern. In the irregular period, the mean energy intake on the day when 9 meals were eaten was significantly greater than when 6 or 3 meals were consumed (P=0.0001). There was no significant difference between the 3 days of the regular meal pattern. Subjective appetite measurement showed no significant differences before and after the test meal in all visits. Fasting RMR showed no significant differences over the experiment. The overall thermic effect of food (TEF) over the 3 h after the test meal was significantly lower after the irregular meal pattern (P=0.003). Irregular meal frequency led to a lower postprandial energy expenditure compared with the regular meal frequency, while the mean energy intake was not significantly different between the two. The reduced TEF with the irregular meal frequency may lead to weight gain in the long term.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                nh
                Nutrición Hospitalaria
                Nutr. Hosp.
                Grupo Arán (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
                0212-1611
                1699-5198
                August 2018
                : 35
                : 4
                : 962-970
                Affiliations
                Ciudad Guzmán, Jalisco orgnameUniversidad de Guadalajara orgdiv1Centro Universitario del Sur (CUSUR) orgdiv2Centro de Investigaciones en Comportamiento Alimentario y Nutrición (CICAN) Mexico
                Autlán, Jalisco orgnameUniversidad de Guadalajara orgdiv1Centro Universitario de la Costa Sur (CU Costa Sur) Mexico
                Article
                S0212-16112018000800962
                10.20960/nh.1611

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 15, Pages: 9
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