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      Guidelines for the Use of Echocardiography in the Evaluation of a Cardiac Source of Embolism

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          Abstract

          Embolism from the heart or the thoracic aorta often leads to clinically significant morbidity and mortality due to transient ischemic attack, stroke or occlusion of peripheral arteries. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are the key diagnostic modalities for evaluation, diagnosis, and management of stroke, systemic and pulmonary embolism. This document provides comprehensive American Society of Echocardiography guidelines on the use of echocardiography for evaluation of cardiac sources of embolism. It describes general mechanisms of stroke and systemic embolism; the specific role of cardiac and aortic sources in stroke, and systemic and pulmonary embolism; the role of echocardiography in evaluation, diagnosis, and management of cardiac and aortic sources of emboli including the incremental value of contrast and 3D echocardiography; and a brief description of alternative imaging techniques and their role in the evaluation of cardiac sources of emboli. Specific guidelines are provided for each category of embolic sources including the left atrium and left atrial appendage, left ventricle, heart valves, cardiac tumors, and thoracic aorta. In addition, there are recommendation regarding pulmonary embolism, and embolism related to cardiovascular surgery and percutaneous procedures. The guidelines also include a dedicated section on cardiac sources of embolism in pediatric populations.

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          Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

          The rapid technological developments of the past decade and the changes in echocardiographic practice brought about by these developments have resulted in the need for updated recommendations to the previously published guidelines for cardiac chamber quantification, which was the goal of the joint writing group assembled by the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. This document provides updated normal values for all four cardiac chambers, including three-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation, when possible, on the basis of considerably larger numbers of normal subjects, compiled from multiple databases. In addition, this document attempts to eliminate several minor discrepancies that existed between previously published guidelines.
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            Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment

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              Proposed modifications to the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

              Although the sensitivity and specificity of the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) have been validated by investigators from Europe and the United States, several shortcomings of this schema remain. The Duke IE database contains records collected prospectively on >800 cases of definite and possible IE since 1984. Databases on echocardiograms and on patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia at Duke University Medical Center are also maintained. Analyses of these databases, our experience with the Duke criteria in clinical practice, and analysis of the work of others have led us to propose the following modifications of the Duke schema. The category "possible IE" should be defined as having at least 1 major criterion and 1 minor criterion or 3 minor criteria. The minor criterion "echocardiogram consistent with IE but not meeting major criterion" should be eliminated, given the widespread use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Bacteremia due to S. aureus should be considered a major criterion, regardless of whether the infection is nosocomially acquired or whether a removable source of infection is present. Positive Q-fever serology should be changed to a major criterion.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
                Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
                Elsevier BV
                08947317
                January 2016
                January 2016
                : 29
                : 1
                : 1-42
                10.1016/j.echo.2015.09.011
                26765302
                © 2016

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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