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      Expression of ganglioside GD2, reprogram the lipid metabolism and EMT phenotype in bladder cancer

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          Abstract

          High-grade Bladder Cancer (BLCA) represents the most aggressive and treatment-resistant cancer that renders the patients with poor survival. However, only a few biomarkers have been identified for the detection and treatment of BLCA. Recent studies show that ganglioside GD2 can be used as cancer biomarker and/or therapeutic target for various cancers. Despite its potential relevance in cancer diagnosis and therapeutics, the role of GD2 is unknown in BLCA. Here, we report for the first time that high-grade BLCA tissues and cell lines have higher expression of GD2 compared to low-grade by high-resolution Mass Spectrometry. The muscle invasive UMUC3 cell line showed high GD2, mesenchymal phenotype, and cell proliferation. Besides, we have shown the cancer stem cells (CSC) property (CD44hiCD24lo) of GD2+ UMUC3 and J82 cells. Also, the evaluation of lipid metabolism in GD2+ BLCA cell lines revealed higher levels of Phosphatidylinositol (PI), Phosphatidic acid (PA), Cardiolipin (CL) and lower levels of Phosphatidylserine (PS), plasmenyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (pPE), plasmenyl-phosphocholines (pPC), sphingomyelins (SM), triglycerides (TGs) and N-Acetylneuraminic acid. These findings are significantly correlated with the tissues of BLCA patients. Based on this evidence, we propose that GD2 may be used as an effective diagnostic and therapeutic target for aggressive BLCA.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Loss of FBP1 by Snail-mediated repression provides metabolic advantages in basal-like breast cancer.

          The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enhances cancer invasiveness and confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics. We show that the Snail-G9a-Dnmt1 complex, which is critical for E-cadherin promoter silencing, is also required for the promoter methylation of fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (FBP1) in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Loss of FBP1 induces glycolysis and results in increased glucose uptake, macromolecule biosynthesis, formation of tetrameric PKM2, and maintenance of ATP production under hypoxia. Loss of FBP1 also inhibits oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species production by suppressing mitochondrial complex I activity; this metabolic reprogramming results in an increased CSC-like property and tumorigenicity by enhancing the interaction of β-catenin with T-cell factor. Our study indicates that the loss of FBP1 is a critical oncogenic event in EMT and BLBC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Bladder cancer.

            Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with 70% of patients presenting with superficial tumours, which tend to recur but are generally not life threatening, and 30% presenting as muscle-invasive disease associated with a high risk of death from distant metastases. The main presenting symptom of all bladder cancers is painless haematuria, and the diagnosis is established by urinary cytology and transurethral tumour resection. Intravesical treatment is used for carcinoma in situ and other high grade non-muscle-invasive tumours. The standard of care for muscle-invasive disease is radical cystoprostatectomy, and several types of urinary diversions are offered to patients, with quality of life as an important consideration. Bladder preservation with transurethral tumour resection, radiation, and chemotherapy can in some cases be equally curative. Several chemotherapeutic agents have proven to be useful as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment and in patients with metastatic disease. We discuss bladder preserving approaches, combination chemotherapy including new agents, targeted therapies, and advances in molecular biology.
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              Tumor malignancy defined by aberrant glycosylation and sphingo(glyco)lipid metabolism.

               S Hakomori (1996)
              Aberrant glycosylation expressed in glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins in tumor cells has been implicated as an essential mechanism in defining stage, direction, and fate of tumor progression. This general concept is supported by results from three lines of study: (a) Numerous clinicopathological studies have shown a clear correlation between aberrant glycosylation status of primary tumor and invasive/metastatic potential of human cancer as reflected by 5- or 10-year survival rates of patients. (b) Carbohydrates expressed in tumor cells are either adhesion molecules per se or modulate adhesion receptor function. Some are directly involved in cell adhesion. They are recognized by selectins or other carbohydrate-binding proteins or by complementary carbohydrates (through carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction). N- or O-glycosylation of functionally important membrane components may alter tumor cell adhesion or motility in a direction that either promotes or inhibits invasion and metastasis. Examples of such receptors are E-cadherin, integrins, immunoglobulin family receptors (e.g., CD44), and lysosome-associated membrane protein. (c) Gangliosides and sphingolipids modulate transmembrane signaling essential for tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. The transducer molecules susceptible to gangliosides and sphingolipids include integrin receptors, tyrosine kinase-linked growth factor receptors, protein kinase C, and G-protein-linked receptor affecting protein kinase A. Some glycosphingolipids (e.g., Gb3Cer, Le(y), ceramide, and sphingosine induce tumor cell differentiation and subsequent apoptosis. Shedded gangliosides may block immunogenicity of tumor cells, providing conditions favorable for "escape" from immunological suppression of tumor growth by the host. Various reagents that block carbohydrate-mediated tumor cell adhesion or block glycosylation processing have been shown to inhibit tumor cell metastasis. This provides the basis for further development of "anti-adhesion therapy." Ganglioside analogues and sphingolipid analogues that inhibit protein kinase C and receptor-associated tyrosine kinase have been applied for inhibition of metastasis. A crucial mechanism for inhibition of metastasis by these reagents may involve blocking of transmembrane signaling for expression of P- and E-selectin. This provides the basis for development of "ortho-signaling therapy."
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                10 November 2017
                16 September 2017
                : 8
                : 56
                : 95620-95631
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
                2 Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Advanced Technology Core, Alkek Center for Molecular Discovery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
                3 Section of Molecular Hematology and Therapy, Department of Leukemia, and Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
                4 Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Nagireddy Putluri, putluri@ 123456bcm.edu
                Article
                21038
                10.18632/oncotarget.21038
                5707048
                Copyright: © 2017 Vantaku et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Paper

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                lipid metabolism, bladder cancer, ganglioside gd2, emt

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