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      Guide and Position of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics on Personalized Nutrition: Part 2 - Ethics, Challenges and Endeavors of Precision Nutrition

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Nutrigenetics considers the influence of individual genetic variation on differences in response to dietary components, nutrient requirements and predisposition to disease. Nutrigenomics involves the study of interactions between the genome and diet, including how nutrients affect the transcription and translation process plus subsequent proteomic and metabolomic changes, and also differences in response to dietary factors based on the individual genetic makeup. Personalized characteristics such as age, gender, physical activity, physiological state and social status, and special conditions such as pregnancy and risk of disease can inform dietary advice that more closely meets individual needs. Precision nutrition has a promising future in treating the individual according to their phenotype and genetic characteristics, aimed at both the treatment and prevention of disease. However, many aspects are still in progress and remain as challenges for the future of nutrition. The integration of the human genotype and microbiome needs to be better understood. Further advances in data interpretation tools are also necessary, so that information obtained through newer tests and technologies can be properly transferred to consumers. Indeed, precision nutrition will integrate genetic data with phenotypical, social, cultural and personal preferences and lifestyles matters to provide a more individual nutrition, but considering public health perspectives, where ethical, legal and policy aspects need to be defined and implemented.

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          Most cited references 123

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          Personal omics profiling reveals dynamic molecular and medical phenotypes.

          Personalized medicine is expected to benefit from combining genomic information with regular monitoring of physiological states by multiple high-throughput methods. Here, we present an integrative personal omics profile (iPOP), an analysis that combines genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and autoantibody profiles from a single individual over a 14 month period. Our iPOP analysis revealed various medical risks, including type 2 diabetes. It also uncovered extensive, dynamic changes in diverse molecular components and biological pathways across healthy and diseased conditions. Extremely high-coverage genomic and transcriptomic data, which provide the basis of our iPOP, revealed extensive heteroallelic changes during healthy and diseased states and an unexpected RNA editing mechanism. This study demonstrates that longitudinal iPOP can be used to interpret healthy and diseased states by connecting genomic information with additional dynamic omics activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Complementing the genome with an "exposome": the outstanding challenge of environmental exposure measurement in molecular epidemiology.

             C Wild (2005)
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              Allergy development and the intestinal microflora during the first year of life.

              The intestinal microflora is a likely source for the induction of immune deviation in infancy. The purpose of this study was to prospectively relate the intestinal microflora to allergy development in 2 countries differing with respect to the prevalence of atopic diseases. Newborn infants were followed prospectively through the first 2 years of life in Estonia (n = 24) and Sweden (n = 20). By that age, 9 Estonian and 9 Swedish infants had developed atopic dermatitis and/or positive skin prick test results. Stool samples were obtained at 5 to 6 days and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and 13 groups of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were cultivated through use of standard methods. In comparison with healthy infants, babies who developed allergy were less often colonized with enterococci during the first month of life (72% vs 96%; P <.05) and with bifidobacteria during the first year of life (17% to 39% vs 42% to 69%; P <.05). Furthermore, allergic infants had higher counts of clostridia at 3 months (median value, 10.3 vs 7.2 log(10); P <.05). The prevalence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus was also higher at 6 months (61% vs 23%; P <.05), whereas the counts of Bacteroides were lower at 12 months (9.9 vs 10.6 log(10); P <.05). Differences in the composition of the gut flora between infants who will and infants who will not develop allergy are demonstrable before the development of any clinical manifestations of atopy. Because the observations were made in 2 countries with different standards of living, we believe that our findings could indicate a role for the intestinal microflora in the development of and protection from allergy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JNN
                Lifestyle Genomics
                10.1159/issn.2504-3188
                Lifestyle Genomics
                S. Karger AG
                2504-3161
                2504-3188
                2016
                June 2016
                11 June 2016
                : 9
                : 1
                : 28-46
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nutrition, School of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., USA; bInstitute of Cardiology ‘G. d'Annunzio' University and Center of Excellence on Aging, Chieti, Italy; cDiscipline of Nutrition, and Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, FM &amp; HS, University of Auckland, and Nutrigenomics New Zealand, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; dEthics Unit, Centre for Theology and Religious Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; eDepartment of Preventive Medicine, USC Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif., fDepartment of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Texas Woman's University, Denton, Tex., and gLaboratory for Lipid Medicine and Technology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA; hDepartment of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil; iDepartment of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, and Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, and Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), Pamplona, jCIBERobn, Physiopathology of Obesity, Carlos III Institute, Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                *J. Alfredo Martínez, Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, University of Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, ES-31008 Pamplona (Spain), E-Mail jalfmtz@unav.es
                Article
                446347 J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2016;9:28-46
                10.1159/000446347
                27286972
                © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 159, Pages: 19
                Categories
                10th Congress of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics

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