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      Controversies in Renal Artery Stenosis: A Review by the American Society of Nephrology Advisory Group on Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Renovascular hypertension is a recognized secondary potentially curable cause of hypertension since the work of Harry Goldblatt. Operative treatments for renal artery stenosis (RAS) have been offered for decades and percutaneous interventions have been widely available for 20 years. Stenting has largely obviated recurrence and modern techniques have contributed greatly to the safety of the procedure. Nevertheless, controversy abounds and prospective randomized trials have not successfully documented the value of intervention in patients with atherosclerotic RAS. The patient population has also changed remarkably. Whereas earlier patients with RAS were identified on clinical grounds, RAS is now commonly found serendipitously during angiography for other reasons. Whether or not these patients benefit from ‘drive by’ stenting is unknown. The practice may be hazardous and should be critically examined. A dialog and closer cooperation between cardiologists and nephrologists is warranted and organized programs should be formulated to address this problem.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a pooled analysis of community-based studies.

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem. Conflicting evidence exists among community-based studies as to whether CKD is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. After subjects with a baseline history of cardiovascular disease were excluded, data from four publicly available, community-based longitudinal studies were pooled: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study, and Framingham Offspring Study. Serum creatinine levels were indirectly calibrated across studies. CKD was defined by a GFR between 15 and 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). A composite of myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, and death was the primary study outcome. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for study, demographic variables, educational status, and other cardiovascular risk factors. The total population included 22,634 subjects; 18.4% of the population was black, and 7.4% had CKD. There were 3262 events. In adjusted analyses, CKD was an independent risk factor for the composite study outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.32), and there was a significant interaction between kidney function and race. Black individuals with CKD had an adjusted HR of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.35-2.31), whereas whites had an adjusted HR of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.02-1.26). CKD is a risk factor for the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in the general population and a more pronounced risk factor in blacks than in whites. It is hypothesized that this effect may be due to more frequent or more severe subclinical vascular disease secondary to hypertension or diabetes in black individuals.
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            Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: epidemiology, cardiovascular outcomes, and clinical prediction rules.

            Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is the most common primary disease of the renal arteries, and it is associated with two major clinical syndromes, ischemic renal disease and hypertension. The prevalence of this disease in the population is undefined because there is no simple and reliable test that can be applied on a large scale. Renal artery involvement in patients with coronary heart disease and/or heart failure is frequent, and it may influence cardiovascular outcomes and survival in these patients. Suspecting renal arterial stenosis in patients with recurrent episodes of pulmonary edema is justified by observations showing that about one third of elderly patients with heart failure display atherosclerotic renal disease. Whether interventions aimed at restoring arterial patency may reduce the high mortality in patients with heart failure is still unclear because, to date, no prospective study has been carried out in these patients. Increased awareness of the need for cost containment has renewed the interest in clinical cues for suspecting renovascular hypertension. In this regard, the DRASTIC study constitutes an important attempt at validating clinical prediction rules. In this study, a clinical rule was derived that predicted renal artery stenosis as efficiently as renal scintigraphy (sensitivity: clinical rule, 65% versus scintigraphy, 72%; specificity: 87% versus 92%). When tested in a systematic and quantitative manner, clinical findings can perform as accurately as more complex tests in the detection of renal artery stenosis.
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              Endothelial function and oxidative stress in renovascular hypertension.

              It has been reported that renovascular hypertension activates the renin-angiotensin system, leading to an increase in oxidative stress. We sought to determine whether renal-artery angioplasty improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with renovascular hypertension through a reduction in oxidative stress. We evaluated the response of forearm blood flow to acetylcholine, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, and isosorbide dinitrate, an endothelium-independent vasodilator, before and after renal-artery angioplasty in 15 subjects with renovascular hypertension and 15 controls without hypertension who were matched for age and sex. Forearm blood flow was measured with the use of a mercury-filled Silastic strain-gauge plethysmograph. The forearm blood flow in response to acetylcholine was less in subjects with renovascular hypertension than in controls, although the forearm blood flow in response to isosorbide dinitrate was similar in the two groups. Angioplasty decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressures, forearm vascular resistance, and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), indexes of oxidative stress. After angioplasty, the mean (+/-SD) forearm blood flow in response to acetylcholine was increased in the patients with renovascular hypertension (19.3+/-6.8 vs. 29.6+/-7.1 ml per minute per 100 ml, P=0.002). The increase in the maximal forearm blood flow in response to acetylcholine correlated significantly with the decrease in urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (r=-0.51, P=0.004) and serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL (r=-0.39, P=0.02). Coinfusion of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) augmented the response of forearm blood flow to acetylcholine before angioplasty (P<0.001) but not after angioplasty. These findings suggest that excessive oxidative stress is involved, at least in part, in impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with renovascular hypertension.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2007
                April 2007
                21 March 2007
                : 27
                : 2
                : 212-220
                Affiliations
                Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, Colo., USA
                Article
                101000 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:212–220
                10.1159/000101000
                17377375
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 52, Pages: 9
                Categories
                In-Depth Topic Review

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