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      Microbiota-induced tertiary lymphoid tissues aggravate inflammatory disease in the absence of RORγt and LTi cells

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          Abstract

          Microbiota drive tertiary lymphoid tissue formation in mice lacking the nuclear hormone receptor Rorγt, leading to intestinal inflammation and wasting disease.

          Abstract

          The programmed development of lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches during ontogeny requires lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells that express the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt. After birth, LTi cells in the intestine cluster into cryptopatches, the precursors of isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs), which are induced to form by symbiotic bacteria and maintain intestinal homeostasis. We show that in RORγt-deficient mice, which lack LTi cells, programmed lymphoid tissues, ILFs, and Th17 cells, bacterial containment requires the generation of large numbers of tertiary lymphoid tissues (tLTs) through the activity of B cells. However, upon epithelial damage, these mice develop severe intestinal inflammation characterized by extensive recruitment of neutrophils and IgG + B cells, high expression of activation-induced deaminase in tLTs, and wasting disease. The pathology was prevented by antibiotic treatment or inhibition of lymphoid tissue formation and was significantly decreased by treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG). Our data show that intestinal immunodeficiency, such as an absence in RORγt-mediated proinflammatory immunity, can be compensated by increased lymphoid tissue genesis. However, this comes at a high cost for the host and can lead to a deregulated B cell response and aggravated inflammatory pathology.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Class switch recombination and hypermutation require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a potential RNA editing enzyme.

          Induced overexpression of AID in CH12F3-2 B lymphoma cells augmented class switching from IgM to IgA without cytokine stimulation. AID deficiency caused a complete defect in class switching and showed a hyper-IgM phenotype with enlarged germinal centers containing strongly activated B cells before or after immunization. AID-/- spleen cells stimulated in vitro with LPS and cytokines failed to undergo class switch recombination although they expressed germline transcripts. Immunization of AID-/- chimera with 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl (NP) chicken gamma-globulin induced neither accumulation of mutations in the NP-specific variable region gene nor class switching. These results suggest that AID may be involved in regulation or catalysis of the DNA modification step of both class switching and somatic hypermutation.
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            Lymphoid tissue genesis induced by commensals through NOD1 regulates intestinal homeostasis.

            Intestinal homeostasis is critical for efficient energy extraction from food and protection from pathogens. Its disruption can lead to an array of severe illnesses with major impacts on public health, such as inflammatory bowel disease characterized by self-destructive intestinal immunity. However, the mechanisms regulating the equilibrium between the large bacterial flora and the immune system remain unclear. Intestinal lymphoid tissues generate flora-reactive IgA-producing B cells, and include Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, as well as numerous isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). Here we show that peptidoglycan from Gram-negative bacteria is necessary and sufficient to induce the genesis of ILFs in mice through recognition by the NOD1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1) innate receptor in epithelial cells, and beta-defensin 3- and CCL20-mediated signalling through the chemokine receptor CCR6. Maturation of ILFs into large B-cell clusters requires subsequent detection of bacteria by toll-like receptors. In the absence of ILFs, the composition of the intestinal bacterial community is profoundly altered. Our results demonstrate that intestinal bacterial commensals and the immune system communicate through an innate detection system to generate adaptive lymphoid tissues and maintain intestinal homeostasis.
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              A B cell-deficient mouse by targeted disruption of the membrane exon of the immunoglobulin mu chain gene.

              Of the various classes of antibodies that B lymphocytes can produce, class M (IgM) is the first to be expressed on the membrane of the developing cells. Pre-B cells, the precursors of B-lymphocytes, produce the heavy chain of IgM (mu chain), but not light chains. Recent data suggest that pre-B cells express mu chains on the membrane together with the 'surrogate' light chains lambda 5 and V pre B (refs 2-7). This complex could control pre-B-cell differentiation, in particular the rearrangement of the light-chain genes. We have now assessed the importance of the membrane form of the mu chain in B-cell development by generating mice lacking this chain. We disrupted one of the membrane exons of the gene encoding the mu-chain constant region by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells. From these cells we derived mice heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation. B-cell development in the heterozygous mice seemed to be normal, but in homozygous animals B cells were absent, their development already being arrested at the stage of pre-B-cell maturation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                17 January 2011
                : 208
                : 1
                : 125-134
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Lymphoid Tissue Development Unit , [2 ]Unité d’Allergologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire , and [3 ]Unité de Défense Innée et Inflammation, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris, France
                [4 ]URA1961, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75724 Paris, France
                [5 ]Institute of Infection Immunology, Twincore, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, Medical University Hannover and Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, 30625 Hannover, Germany
                [6 ]INSERM U760 , and [7 ]INSERM U874, 75724 Paris, France
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE Gérard Eberl: gerard.eberl@ 123456pasteur.fr
                Article
                20100052
                10.1084/jem.20100052
                3023125
                21173107
                95912364-7f2d-4b92-9fcf-4ddf0fea9d44
                © 2011 Lochner et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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