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      New insights into the use of a mite count reduction test for the detection of therapeutic acaricide efficacy in Psoroptes ovis in cattle

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          Abstract

          When used for the evaluation of drug efficacy against Psoroptes ovis, the diagnostic performance of different sampling strategies for a mite count reduction test (MCRT) remains unclear. In the present study, a novel simulation framework was constructed that accounted for relevant biological features of P. ovis infestations in cattle and that was parameterized with field data from 16 farms (154 animals). Second, this framework was applied to explore the impact of study specific factors (number of animals, number of sampled lesions, and number of scrapings per lesion) and biological factors (mite infestation intensity and size of lesions) on the diagnostic performance of MCRT. Its outcome provided a basis to determine the diagnostic performance of MCRT when it was applied according to the World Association for the Advancement in Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) and the European Medicine Agency (EMA) guidelines, and to formulate recommendations to ensure a good diagnostic performance of the MCRT. For both guidelines, the MCRT allowed to correctly detect (power 80%) reduced and normal efficacy when the therapeutic efficacy was <70%, and ≥95%, respectively. The results highlighted a reliable diagnostic performance of the MCRT when performed as recommended by WAAVP and EMA for the detection of normal drug efficacy. When used for the detection of reduced efficacy, therapeutic efficacies between 70% and 90% could not be detected with sufficient reliability. The diagnostic performance can be improved by increasing the total number of skin scrapings (increasing the number of animals, number of sampled lesions and/or number of samples per lesion). In order to help researchers and veterinarians to optimize the design of the MCRT to their field settings, the findings were translated into a simple tool.

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          Highlights

          • Simulation framework for drug efficacy evaluation against Psoroptes ovis.

          • WAAVP and EMA guidelines reliable for detection of normal efficacy; reduced efficacy unreliable.

          • The total number of samples taken per farm and mite infestation intensity increase reliability.

          • Summarizing tool for a wide variety of sampling strategies with resulting diagnostic performance.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Bovine ticks harbour a diverse array of microorganisms in Pakistan

          Background Ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TTBP) are a major constraint to livestock production in Pakistan; despite a high prevalence of TTBPs, knowledge on the capacity of Pakistani ticks to carry pathogens and endosymbionts is limited. Furthermore, mixed infections with multiple microorganisms further complicate and limit the detection potential of traditional diagnostic methods. The present study investigated the tick-borne microorganisms in bovine ticks in Pakistan, employing a high-throughput microfluidic real-time PCR based technique. Methods Ticks were collected from clinically healthy cattle (n = 116) and water buffaloes (n = 88) from 30 villages across six districts located in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Pakistan from September to November 2017. The microfluidic real-time PCR was used to test the genomic DNA of individual ticks for the presence of 27 bacterial and eight parasitic microorganisms. Phylogenetic methods were used to assess the genetic relationship of DNA sequences determined herein. Results PCR detected DNA of at least one microorganism in each of 221 ticks tested (94.4%, 221/234). DNA-based detection inferred that single pathogens/endosymbionts were the most common (43.4%, 96/221) followed by double (38.9%, 86/221), triple (14.5%, 32/221), quadruple (2.3%, 5/221) and quintuple (0.9%, 2/221) mixed infections. Piroplasms (Babesia/Theileria spp.) were the most prevalent (31.6%, 74/234), followed by Ehrlichia spp. (20%, 47/234) and Anaplasma marginale (7.7%, 18/234). Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. centrale, Babesia ovis, Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., R. massiliae, Bartonella spp. and Hepatozoon spp. were also detected. Endosymbionts such as Francisella-like (91.5%, 214/234) and Coxiella-like (1.3%, 3/234) organisms were also detected in ticks. The highest diversity of microorganisms was detected in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks (test-positive for 14/14 microorganisms), followed by Rhipicephalus microplus (4/14), Hy. hussaini (3/14) and Rh. annulatus (2/14). Ticks collected from cattle carried significantly more frequently piroplasms (41.2%, 54/131; P < 0.05) than those from buffaloes (19.4%, 20/103). However, the overall prevalence of microorganisms did not vary significantly among ticks from the two host species as well as across different AEZs. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a wide range of tick-borne microorganisms in bovine ticks using a high-throughput diagnostic method from different AEZs in Pakistan. These findings will aid in establishing the distribution patterns and the control of tick-borne pathogens of bovines in Pakistan.
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            Sheep scab: the disease, pathogenesis and control.

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              Mathematical inference on helminth egg counts in stool and its applications in mass drug administration programmes to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in public health.

              In the present study, we present a hierarchical model based on faecal egg counts (FECs; expressed in eggs per 1g of stool) in which we first describe the variation in FECs between individuals in a particular population, followed by describing the variance due to counting eggs under a microscope separately for each stool sample. From this general framework, we discuss how to calculate a sample size for assessing a population mean FEC and the impact of an intervention, measured as reduction in FECs, for any scenario of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) epidemiology (the intensity and aggregation of FECs within a population) and diagnostic strategy (amount of stool examined (∼sensitivity of the diagnostic technique) and examination of individual/pooled stool samples) and on how to estimate prevalence of STH in the absence of a gold standard. To give these applications the most wide relevance as possible, we illustrate each of them with hypothetical examples.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist
                Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist
                International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance
                Elsevier
                2211-3207
                20 September 2020
                December 2020
                20 September 2020
                : 14
                : 62-72
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820, Merelbeke, Belgium
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. bruno.levecke@ 123456ugent.be
                Article
                S2211-3207(20)30028-2
                10.1016/j.ijpddr.2020.09.002
                7519215
                32979706
                © 2020 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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