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      Altered Cortical-Striatal Network in Patients With Hemifacial Spasm


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          Objective: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a kind of motor disorder, and the striatum plays a significant role in motor function. The purpose of this study was to explore the alterations of the cortical-striatal network in HFS using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

          Methods: The fMRI data of 30 adult patients with primary unilateral HFS (15 left-side and 15 right-side) and 30 healthy controls were collected. Six subregions of the striatum in each hemisphere were selected for functional connectivity (FC) analysis. One-sample t-test was used to analyze the intragroup FC of the HFS group and the control group. Two-sample t-test was used to compare the difference of FC between the two groups. The correlation between the abnormal FC and severity of HFS was evaluated by using the Spearman correlation analysis.

          Results: Compared with the controls, the striatal subregions had altered FC with motor and orbitofrontal cortex in patients with HFS. The altered FC between striatal subregions and motor cortex was correlated with the spasm severity in patients with HFS.

          Conclusion: The FC of the cortical-striatal network was altered in primary HFS, and these alterations were correlated with the severity of HFS. This study indicated that the cortical-striatal network may play different roles in the underlying pathological mechanism of HFS.

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          Most cited references42

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          DPABI: Data Processing & Analysis for (Resting-State) Brain Imaging.

          Brain imaging efforts are being increasingly devoted to decode the functioning of the human brain. Among neuroimaging techniques, resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) is currently expanding exponentially. Beyond the general neuroimaging analysis packages (e.g., SPM, AFNI and FSL), REST and DPARSF were developed to meet the increasing need of user-friendly toolboxes for R-fMRI data processing. To address recently identified methodological challenges of R-fMRI, we introduce the newly developed toolbox, DPABI, which was evolved from REST and DPARSF. DPABI incorporates recent research advances on head motion control and measurement standardization, thus allowing users to evaluate results using stringent control strategies. DPABI also emphasizes test-retest reliability and quality control of data processing. Furthermore, DPABI provides a user-friendly pipeline analysis toolkit for rat/monkey R-fMRI data analysis to reflect the rapid advances in animal imaging. In addition, DPABI includes preprocessing modules for task-based fMRI, voxel-based morphometry analysis, statistical analysis and results viewing. DPABI is designed to make data analysis require fewer manual operations, be less time-consuming, have a lower skill requirement, a smaller risk of inadvertent mistakes, and be more comparable across studies. We anticipate this open-source toolbox will assist novices and expert users alike and continue to support advancing R-fMRI methodology and its application to clinical translational studies.
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            Functional connectivity of human striatum: a resting state FMRI study.

            Classically regarded as motor structures, the basal ganglia subserve a wide range of functions, including motor, cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes. Consistent with this broad-reaching involvement in brain function, basal ganglia dysfunction has been implicated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Despite recent advances in human neuroimaging, models of basal ganglia circuitry continue to rely primarily upon inference from animal studies. Here, we provide a comprehensive functional connectivity analysis of basal ganglia circuitry in humans through a functional magnetic resonance imaging examination during rest. Voxelwise regression analyses substantiated the hypothesized motor, cognitive, and affective divisions among striatal subregions, and provided in vivo evidence of a functional organization consistent with parallel and integrative loop models described in animals. Our findings also revealed subtler distinctions within striatal subregions not previously appreciated by task-based imaging approaches. For instance, the inferior ventral striatum is functionally connected with medial portions of orbitofrontal cortex, whereas a more superior ventral striatal seed is associated with medial and lateral portions. The ability to map multiple distinct striatal circuits in a single study in humans, as opposed to relying on meta-analyses of multiple studies, is a principal strength of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach holds promise for studying basal ganglia dysfunction in clinical disorders.
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              Inflammation is associated with decreased functional connectivity within corticostriatal reward circuitry in depression

              Depression is associated with alterations in corticostriatal reward circuitry. One pathophysiologic pathway that may drive these changes is inflammation. Biomarkers of inflammation (e.g. cytokines and C-reactive protein [CRP]) are reliably elevated in depressed patients. Moreover, administration of inflammatory stimuli reduces neural activity and dopamine release in reward-related brain regions in association with reduced motivation and anhedonia. Accordingly, we examined whether increased inflammation in depression affects corticostriatal reward circuitry to lead to deficits in motivation and goal-directed motor behavior. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 48 medically-stable, unmedicated outpatients with major depression. Whole-brain, voxel-wise functional connectivity was examined as a function of CRP using seeds for subdivisions of the ventral and dorsal striatum associated with motivation and motor control. Increased CRP was associated with decreased connectivity between ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)(corrected P<0.05), which in turn correlated with increased anhedonia (R=−0.47, P=0.001). Increased CRP similarly predicted decreased dorsal striatal to vmPFC and pre-supplementary motor area connectivity, which correlated with decreased motor speed (R=0.31 to 0.45, P<0.05) and increased psychomotor slowing (R=−0.35, P=0.015). Of note, mediation analyses revealed that these effects of CRP on connectivity mediated significant relationships between CRP and anhedonia and motor slowing. Finally, connectivity between striatum and vmPFC was associated with increased plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist (R=−0.33 to −0.36, P<0.05). These findings suggest that decreased corticostriatal connectivity may serve as a target for anti-inflammatory or pro-dopaminergic treatment strategies to improve motivational and motor deficits in patients with increased inflammation including depression.

                Author and article information

                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front. Hum. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                22 October 2021
                : 15
                [1] 1Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital , Beijing, China
                [2] 2Peking University China-Japan Friendship School of Clinical Medicine , Beijing, China
                [3] 3Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital , Beijing, China
                [4] 4Department of Ultrasound Diagnosis, China-Japan Friendship Hospital , Beijing, China
                [5] 5Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Long-Biao Cui, People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, China

                Reviewed by: Maria Angelique Di Biase, The University of Melbourne, Australia; Yahong Zhang, Fourth Military Medical University, China

                *Correspondence: Guolin Ma, maguolin1007@ 123456qq.com

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Brain Imaging and Stimulation, a section of the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

                Copyright © 2021 Gao, Yang, Zhang, Du, Liu, Liu, Chen, Wang, Liu, Yang, Lv, Xue and Ma.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 11, Words: 7377
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, doi 10.13039/501100001809;
                Award ID: 81971585
                Funded by: National Key Research and Development Program of China, doi 10.13039/501100012166;
                Award ID: 2020YFC2003903
                Award ID: 2020YFC2007301
                Original Research

                hemifacial spasm (hfs),striatum,functional connectivity,motor disorder,resting-state fmri


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