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      Characterization of sialylation-related long noncoding RNAs to develop a novel signature for predicting prognosis, immune landscape, and chemotherapy response in colorectal cancer

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          Abstract

          Aberrant sialylation plays a key biological role in tumorigenesis and metastasis, including tumor cell survival and invasion, immune evasion, angiogenesis, and resistance to therapy. It has been proposed as a possible cancer biomarker and a potential therapeutic target of tumors. Nevertheless, the prognostic significance and biological features of sialylation-related long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. This study aimed to develop a novel sialylation-related lncRNA signature to accurately evaluate the prognosis of patients with CRC and explore the potential molecular mechanisms of the sialylation-related lncRNAs. Here, we identified sialylation-related lncRNAs using the Pearson correlation analysis on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Univariate and stepwise multivariable Cox analysis were used to establish a signature based on seven sialylation-related lncRNAs in the TCGA dataset, and the risk model was validated in the Gene Expression Omnibus dataset. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that CRC patients in the low-risk subgroup had a better survival outcome than those in the high-risk subgroup in the training set, testing set, and overall set. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the sialylation-related lncRNA signature was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, progression-free survival, and disease-specific survival prediction. The sialylation lncRNA signature-based nomogram exhibited a robust prognostic performance. Furthermore, enrichment analysis showed that cancer hallmarks and oncogenic signaling were enriched in the high-risk group, while inflammatory responses and immune-related pathways were enriched in the low-risk group. The comprehensive analysis suggested that low-risk patients had higher activity of immune response pathways, greater immune cell infiltration, and higher expression of immune stimulators. In addition, we determined the sialylation level in normal colonic cells and CRC cell lines by flow cytometry combined with immunofluorescence, and verified the expression levels of seven lncRNAs using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Finally, combined drug sensitivity analysis using the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer, Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal, and Profiling Relative Inhibition Simultaneously in Mixtures indicated that the sialylation-related lncRNA signature could serve as a potential predictor for chemosensitivity. Collectively, this is the first sialylation lncRNA-based signature for predicting the prognosis, immune landscape, and chemotherapeutic response in CRC, and may provide vital guidance to facilitate risk stratification and optimize individualized therapy for CRC patients.

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          Gene set enrichment analysis: A knowledge-based approach for interpreting genome-wide expression profiles

          Although genomewide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool in biomedical research, extracting biological insight from such information remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for interpreting gene expression data. The method derives its power by focusing on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation. We demonstrate how GSEA yields insights into several cancer-related data sets, including leukemia and lung cancer. Notably, where single-gene analysis finds little similarity between two independent studies of patient survival in lung cancer, GSEA reveals many biological pathways in common. The GSEA method is embodied in a freely available software package, together with an initial database of 1,325 biologically defined gene sets.
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            limma powers differential expression analyses for RNA-sequencing and microarray studies

            limma is an R/Bioconductor software package that provides an integrated solution for analysing data from gene expression experiments. It contains rich features for handling complex experimental designs and for information borrowing to overcome the problem of small sample sizes. Over the past decade, limma has been a popular choice for gene discovery through differential expression analyses of microarray and high-throughput PCR data. The package contains particularly strong facilities for reading, normalizing and exploring such data. Recently, the capabilities of limma have been significantly expanded in two important directions. First, the package can now perform both differential expression and differential splicing analyses of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. All the downstream analysis tools previously restricted to microarray data are now available for RNA-seq as well. These capabilities allow users to analyse both RNA-seq and microarray data with very similar pipelines. Second, the package is now able to go past the traditional gene-wise expression analyses in a variety of ways, analysing expression profiles in terms of co-regulated sets of genes or in terms of higher-order expression signatures. This provides enhanced possibilities for biological interpretation of gene expression differences. This article reviews the philosophy and design of the limma package, summarizing both new and historical features, with an emphasis on recent enhancements and features that have not been previously described.
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              edgeR: a Bioconductor package for differential expression analysis of digital gene expression data

              Summary: It is expected that emerging digital gene expression (DGE) technologies will overtake microarray technologies in the near future for many functional genomics applications. One of the fundamental data analysis tasks, especially for gene expression studies, involves determining whether there is evidence that counts for a transcript or exon are significantly different across experimental conditions. edgeR is a Bioconductor software package for examining differential expression of replicated count data. An overdispersed Poisson model is used to account for both biological and technical variability. Empirical Bayes methods are used to moderate the degree of overdispersion across transcripts, improving the reliability of inference. The methodology can be used even with the most minimal levels of replication, provided at least one phenotype or experimental condition is replicated. The software may have other applications beyond sequencing data, such as proteome peptide count data. Availability: The package is freely available under the LGPL licence from the Bioconductor web site (http://bioconductor.org). Contact: mrobinson@wehi.edu.au
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                18 October 2022
                2022
                : 13
                : 994874
                Affiliations
                [1] State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Function of Natural Medicine, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Heinz Laubli, University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Shoib Sarwar Siddiqui, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom; Lutao Du, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, China

                *Correspondence: Min Yang, minyang@ 123456imm.ac.cn

                This article was submitted to Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2022.994874
                9623420
                36330513
                95a436b9-88bc-4fff-b5e5-3397f075f1f2
                Copyright © 2022 Zhou, Lv, Hou, Zhang, Wang, Yan, Li, Gan, Zeng, Zhang and Yang

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 15 July 2022
                : 03 October 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 0, Equations: 1, References: 84, Pages: 18, Words: 7163
                Categories
                Immunology
                Original Research

                Immunology
                sialylation,long noncoding rna,colorectal cancer,prognostic signature,immune microenvironment

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