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      Características reproductivas, sanitarias y de manejo en establecimientos lecheros del Uruguay Translated title: Reproductive, health and management characteristics in dairy herds in Uruguay

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          Abstract

          Resumen: Los problemas reproductivos y sanitarios representan una de las limitantes de mayor impacto productivo en los rodeos lecheros del Uruguay. Las alteraciones en los índices reproductivos pueden deberse a una amplia diversidad de causas, las cuales exigen un correcto diagnóstico. Actualmente los antecedentes de encuestas en el rubro lechero son proporcionados por la Oficina de Estadísticas Agropecuarias y el Instituto Nacional de Leche. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las prácticas de manejo, reproductivas y sanitarias en los establecimientos lecheros del Uruguay. Se diseñó un estudio transversal de los establecimientos lecheros del Uruguay. Se creó una encuesta la cual fue realizada en el año 2015. Fueron seleccionados 107 predios lecheros de acuerdo al tamaño de población bovina a partir de un muestreo aleatorio estratificado. Las preguntas se enfocaron en características generales del predio, estrategias y características sanitarias, y estrategias y características reproductivas. La tasa de respuesta fue del 95,3 %. De los predios encuestados, el 95,6 ±1,8 % tenía asesoramiento veterinario. La técnica de inseminación artificial se utilizó en el 83,8 ±5,2 %. Un 59,9 ± 5,5 % de los predios realizaban diagnóstico de gestación. La tasa de preñez estimada fue del 79,5 ±1,5 %. La evaluación de los toros previo al servicio se realizó en el 49,0 ±7,6 % de los tambos. La principal causa de refugo fue por dentición. La utilización de vacunas como medida preventiva para enfermedades reproductivas se utilizó en el 56,6 ±5,4 % de los productores lecheros. El 58,7 ±6,7 % de los encuestados declaró no tener ningún antecedente de enfermedades reproductivas. La media de abortos vistos anualmente fue de 4,4 ±0,6. Las tasas de preñez no pudo asociarse a aspectos reproductivos y/o sanitarios. Se pudo determinar que el aspecto demográfico cumple un rol significativo en la elección de los aspectos reproductivos y de manejo en los establecimientos lecheros del Uruguay.

          Translated abstract

          Summary: Ones of the most important limitations on dairy herd of Uruguay are the reproductive and health problems. Alterations on reproductive rates may be due to a wide variety of causes, which require a correct diagnosis. Currently in Uruguay, histories of surveys in dairy sector were provided by the “Oficina de Estadísticas Agropecuarias” and the “Instituto Nacional de Leche”. The aim of this study was to characterize the management, reproductive and health practices in dairy farms in Uruguay. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2015. Dairy herds were stratified by size and 107 herds were randomly selected throughout all the Uruguayan territory. A survey was made on these herds; the questions were focused on general characteristics of the farms, strategies and health characteristics, and strategies and reproductive characteristics. The response rate of the survey was 95.3%. Of the surveyed farms, 95.6 ± 1.8% had veterinary service. The artificial insemination technique was used in 83.8 ± 5.2%. Fifty-nine percent of the farms made a pregnancy diagnosis. The estimated pregnancy rate was 79.5 ± 1.5%. The pre-service evaluation of the bulls was carried out in 49.0 ± 7.6% of the dairy farms. The main cause of culling was due to teething. Use of vaccines as a preventive measure for reproductive diseases was 56.6 ± 5.4% of the dairy farms. Fifty-eight percent of those surveyed had no history of reproductive diseases. The mean of abortions seen annually was 4.4 ± 0.6. Pregnancy rates could not be associated with reproductive and/or health aspects. It was possible to determine that the demographic aspect is a key role in the choice of reproductive and management aspects in dairy farms in Uruguay.

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          On Chi-Squared Tests for Multiway Contingency Tables with Cell Proportions Estimated from Survey Data

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            Reproductive management in dairy cows - the future

            Background Drivers of change in dairy herd health management include the significant increase in herd/farm size, quota removal (within Europe) and the increase in technologies to aid in dairy cow reproductive management. Main body There are a number of key areas for improving fertility management these include: i) handling of substantial volumes of data, ii) genetic selection (including improved phenotypes for use in breeding programmes), iii) nutritional management (including transition cow management), iv) control of infectious disease, v) reproductive management (and automated systems to improve reproductive management), vi) ovulation / oestrous synchronisation, vii) rapid diagnostics of reproductive status, and viii) management of male fertility. This review covers the current status and future outlook of many of these key factors that contribute to dairy cow herd health and reproductive performance. Conclusions In addition to improvements in genetic trends for fertility, numerous other future developments are likely in the near future. These include: i) development of new and novel fertility phenotypes that may be measurable in milk; ii) specific fertility genomic markers; iii) earlier and rapid pregnancy detection; iv) increased use of activity monitors; v) improved breeding protocols; vi) automated inline sensors for relevant phenotypes that become more affordable for farmers; and vii) capturing and mining multiple sources of “Big Data” available to dairy farmers. These should facilitate improved performance, health and fertility of dairy cows in the future.
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              Management practices for male calves on Canadian dairy farms

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                vet
                Veterinaria (Montevideo)
                Veterinaria (Montev.)
                Sociedad de Medicina Veterinaria del Uruguay (Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay )
                0376-4362
                1688-4809
                June 2021
                : 57
                : 215
                : e511
                Affiliations
                [2] Montevideo orgnameMinisterio de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca orgdiv1Dirección General de Servicios Ganaderos Uruguay
                [3] Montevideo Montevideo orgnameUniversidad de la República orgdiv1Facultad de Veterinaria Uruguay
                [1] Ruta 8 Brig. Gral. J. A. Lavalleja Km. 17.500. Montevideo orgnameMinisterio de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca. orgdiv1División de Laboratorios Veterinarios “Miguel C. Rubino” Uruguay asuanes@ 123456mgap.gub.uy
                Article
                S1688-48092021000101511 S1688-4809(21)05721501511
                10.29155/vet.57.215.3
                95a4ace0-62c1-4ef3-96d4-f75640706116

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 12 May 2020
                : 05 April 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 0
                Product

                SciELO Uruguay

                Categories
                Artículos originales

                Encuesta,Survey,dairy,cattle,reproductive indicators,tambos,bovinos,indicadores reproductivos

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