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      The Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-2 is a molecular host-associated cue for the salmon louse ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

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          Abstract

          Chemical signals are a key element of host-parasite interactions. In marine ecosystems, obligate ectoparasites, such as sea lice, use chemical cues and other sensory signals to increase the probability of encountering a host and to identify appropriate hosts on which they depend to complete their life cycle. The chemical compounds that underlie host identification by the sea lice are not fully described or characterized. Here, we report a novel compound - the Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-2 (Cath-2) – that acts as an activation cue for the marine parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis. L. salmonis were exposed to 0, 7, 70 and 700 ppb of Cath-2 and neural activity, swimming behaviour and gene expression profiles of animals in response to the peptide were evaluated. The neurophysiological, behavioural and transcriptomic results were consistent: L. salmonis detects Cath-2 as a water-soluble peptide released from the skin of salmon, triggering chemosensory neural activity associated with altered swimming behaviour of copepodids exposed to the peptide, and chemosensory-related genes were up-regulated in copepodids exposed to the peptide. L. salmonis are activated by Cath-2, indicating a tight link between this peptide and the salmon louse chemosensory system.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Cutadapt removes adapter sequences from high-throughput sequencing reads

           Marcel Martin (2011)
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            Stock Market Prices Do Not Follow Random Walks: Evidence from a Simple Specification Test

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              Sensing odorants and pheromones with chemosensory receptors.

              Olfaction is a critical sensory modality that allows living things to acquire chemical information from the external world. The olfactory system processes two major classes of stimuli: (a) general odorants, small molecules derived from food or the environment that signal the presence of food, fire, or predators, and (b) pheromones, molecules released from individuals of the same species that convey social or sexual cues. Chemosensory receptors are broadly classified, by the ligands that activate them, into odorant or pheromone receptors. Peripheral sensory neurons expressing either odorant or pheromone receptors send signals to separate odor- and pheromone-processing centers in the brain to elicit distinct behavioral and neuroendocrinological outputs. General odorants activate receptors in a combinatorial fashion, whereas pheromones activate narrowly tuned receptors that activate sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the brain. We review recent progress on chemosensory receptor structure, function, and circuitry in vertebrates and invertebrates from the point of view of the molecular biology and physiology of these sensory systems.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                howard.browman@imr.no
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                13 September 2018
                13 September 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2298 9663, GRID grid.5380.e, Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), , University of Concepción, ; Concepción, Chile
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9516 4913, GRID grid.296275.d, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, 60 Bigelow Drive, ; P.O. Box 380, East Boothbay, Maine, 04544 USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0427 3161, GRID grid.10917.3e, Institute of Marine Research, Austevoll Research Station, ; Saugeneset 16, 5392 Storebø, Norway
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2298 9663, GRID grid.5380.e, Complex Systems Group, Department of Physics, , University of Concepción, ; Concepción, Chile
                Article
                31885
                10.1038/s41598-018-31885-6
                6137231
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: Norwegian Institute of Marine Research project “Fine-scale interactions in the plankton” (Project # 81529)
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