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      Predictors of modern contraceptive use among adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa: a mixed effects multilevel analysis of data from 29 demographic and health surveys

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          Abstract

          Background

          The use of modern contraceptives among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains an issue that needs urgent attention. This present study assesses the individual and contextual factors associated with modern contraceptive use among AGYW in SSA.

          Methods

          Data for this study was obtained from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between January 2010 and December 2018 across 29 countries in SSA. Data were analysed with Stata version 14.2 by employing both Pearson’s chi-square test of independence and a multilevel binary logistic regression. The selection of variables for the multilevel models was based on their statistical significance at the chi-square test at a p < 0.05. Model fitness for the multilevel models was checked using the log likelihood ratios and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and the results were presented using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at 95% confidence interval (CI).

          Results

          It was found that 24.7% of AGYW in SSA use modern contraceptives. In terms of the individual level factors, the study showed that AGYW aged 15–19 [aOR = 0.86, CI = 0.83–0.90], those who were married [aOR = 0.83, CI = 0.79–0.87], Muslims [aOR = 0.59, CI = 0.57–0.62], working [aOR = 0.92, CI = 0.89–0.95], those who had no child [aOR = 0.44, CI = 0.42–0.47], those who had no exposure to newspaper/magazine [aOR = 0.44, CI = 0.63–0.71] and radio [aOR = 0.82, CI = 0.78–0.86] had lower odds of using modern contraceptives. Conversely, the use of modern contraceptives was high among AGYW whose age at first sex was 15–19 years [aOR = 1.20, CI = 1.12–1.28]. With the contextual factors, the odds of using modern contraceptives was low among AGYW who lived in rural areas [aOR = 0.89, CI = 0.85–0.93] and in communities with low literacy level [aOR = 0.73, CI = 0.70–0.77] and low socio-economic status [aOR = 0.69, CI = 0.65–0.73].

          Conclusion

          Several individual and contextual factors are associated with modern contraceptive use among AGYW in SSA. Therefore, Governments in the various countries considered in this study should intensify mass education on the use of modern contraceptives. This education should be more centered on AGYW who are in socio-economically disadvantaged communities, those who are not married, Muslims, those with high parity and high fertility preferences and those who are working.

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          Most cited references59

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          The theory of planned behavior

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          Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211
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            The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

            Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.
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              Our future: a Lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                brightahinkorah@gmail.com
                Journal
                Contracept Reprod Med
                Contracept Reprod Med
                Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                2055-7426
                19 November 2020
                19 November 2020
                2020
                : 5
                : 32
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.117476.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7611, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health, , University of Technology Sydney, ; Sydney, Australia
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7415-895X
                Article
                138
                10.1186/s40834-020-00138-1
                7678092
                33292675
                95a7cf2a-612d-4c72-9820-a63c7a3375ae
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 4 September 2020
                : 10 November 2020
                Categories
                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                utilization of modern contraceptives,adolescent girls,young women,sub-saharan africa,reproductive health

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