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      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

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      Paclitaxel: new uses for an old drug

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          Abstract

          Paclitaxel (Taxol), one of the most important anticancer drugs, has been used for therapy of different types of cancers. Mechanistically, paclitaxel arrests cell cycle and induces cell death by stabilizing microtubules and interfering with microtubule disassembly in cell division. Recently, it has been found that low-dose paclitaxel seems promising in treating non-cancer diseases, such as skin disorders, renal and hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, axon regeneration, limb salvage, and coronary artery restenosis. Future studies need to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects in order to design therapies with specificity.

          Most cited references52

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          MD-2, a Molecule that Confers Lipopolysaccharide Responsiveness on Toll-like Receptor 4

          Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Toll, a leucine-rich repeat molecule that can trigger innate responses against pathogens. The TLR4 gene has recently been shown to be mutated in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, both of which are low responders to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TLR4 may be a long-sought receptor for LPS. However, transfection of TLR4 does not confer LPS responsiveness on a recipient cell line, suggesting a requirement for an additional molecule. Here, we report that a novel molecule, MD-2, is requisite for LPS signaling of TLR4. MD-2 is physically associated with TLR4 on the cell surface and confers responsiveness to LPS. MD-2 is thus a link between TLR4 and LPS signaling. Identification of this new receptor complex has potential implications for understanding host defense, as well as pathophysiologic, mechanisms.
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            A polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent in patients with coronary artery disease.

            Restenosis after coronary stenting necessitates repeated percutaneous or surgical revascularization procedures. The delivery of paclitaxel to the site of vascular injury may reduce the incidence of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. At 73 U.S. centers, we enrolled 1314 patients who were receiving a stent in a single, previously untreated coronary-artery stenosis (vessel diameter, 2.5 to 3.75 mm; lesion length, 10 to 28 mm) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. A total of 652 patients were randomly assigned to receive a bare-metal stent, and 662 to receive an identical-appearing, slow-release, polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent. Angiographic follow-up was prespecified at nine months in 732 patients. In terms of base-line characteristics, the two groups were well matched. Diabetes mellitus was present in 24.2 percent of patients; the mean reference-vessel diameter was 2.75 mm, and the mean lesion length was 13.4 mm. A mean of 1.08 stents (length, 21.8 mm) were implanted per patient. The rate of ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization at nine months was reduced from 12.0 percent with the implantation of a bare-metal stent to 4.7 percent with the implantation of a paclitaxel-eluting stent (relative risk, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.59; P<0.001). Target-lesion revascularization was required in 3.0 percent of the group that received a paclitaxel-eluting stent, as compared with 11.3 percent of the group that received a bare-metal stent (relative risk, 0.27; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.43; P<0.001). The rate of angiographic restenosis was reduced from 26.6 percent to 7.9 percent with the paclitaxel-eluting stent (relative risk, 0.30; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.46; P<0.001). The nine-month composite rates of death from cardiac causes or myocardial infarction (4.7 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively) and stent thrombosis (0.6 percent and 0.8 percent, respectively) were similar in the group that received a paclitaxel-eluting stent and the group that received a bare-metal stent. As compared with bare-metal stents, the slow-release, polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent is safe and markedly reduces the rates of clinical and angiographic restenosis at nine months. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and causes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury.

              Hypertrophic scarring and poor intrinsic axon growth capacity constitute major obstacles for spinal cord repair. These processes are tightly regulated by microtubule dynamics. Here, moderate microtubule stabilization decreased scar formation after spinal cord injury in rodents through various cellular mechanisms, including dampening of transforming growth factor-β signaling. It prevented accumulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and rendered the lesion site permissive for axon regeneration of growth-competent sensory neurons. Microtubule stabilization also promoted growth of central nervous system axons of the Raphe-spinal tract and led to functional improvement. Thus, microtubule stabilization reduces fibrotic scarring and enhances the capacity of axons to grow.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                20 February 2014
                : 8
                : 279-284
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departments of Emergency Medicine and Nephrology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University and Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center, Augusta, GA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zheng Dong, Department of Nephrology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China, Tel + 86 731 8529 2064, Fax + 86 731 8529 2060, Email zdong@ 123456gru.edu
                Article
                dddt-8-279
                10.2147/DDDT.S56801
                3934593
                24591817
                95b63f82-bdb5-45a5-bc24-1586d31bbbbf
                © 2014 Zhang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                History
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                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                taxol inflammation,fibrosis,coronary artery restenosis,limb salvage,kidney

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