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      The global impact of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.

      Seminars in perinatology

      Public Health, Pregnancy, Pre-Eclampsia, Maternal Welfare, Infant, Newborn, Humans, Global Health, Female, Eclampsia

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          Abstract

          Over half a million women die each year from pregnancy related causes, 99% in low and middle income countries. In many low income countries, complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death amongst women of reproductive years. The Millennium Development Goals have placed maternal health at the core of the struggle against poverty and inequality, as a matter of human rights. Ten percent of women have high blood pressure during pregnancy, and preeclampsia complicates 2% to 8% of pregnancies. Preeclampsia can lead to problems in the liver, kidneys, brain and the clotting system. Risks for the baby include poor growth and prematurity. Although outcome is often good, preeclampsia can be devastating and life threatening. Overall, 10% to 15% of direct maternal deaths are associated with preeclampsia and eclampsia. Where maternal mortality is high, most of deaths are attributable to eclampsia, rather than preeclampsia. Perinatal mortality is high following preeclampsia, and even higher following eclampsia. In low and middle income countries many public hospitals have limited access to neonatal intensive care, and so the mortality and morbidity is likely to be considerably higher than in settings where such facilities are available. The only interventions shown to prevent preeclampsia are antiplatelet agents, primarily low dose aspirin, and calcium supplementation. Treatment is largely symptomatic. Antihypertensive drugs are mandatory for very high blood pressure. Plasma volume expansion, corticosteroids and antioxidant agents have been suggested for severe preeclampsia, but trials to date have not shown benefit. Optimal timing for delivery of women with severe preeclampsia before 32 to 34 weeks' gestation remains a dilemma. Magnesium sulfate can prevent and control eclamptic seizures. For preeclampsia, it more than halves the risk of eclampsia (number needed to treat 100, 95% confidence interval 50 to 100) and probably reduces the risk of maternal death. A quarter of women have side effects, primarily flushing. With clinical monitoring serious adverse effects are rare. Magnesium sulfate is the anticonvulsant of choice for treating eclampsia; more effective than diazepam, phenytoin, or lytic cocktail. Although it is a low cost effective treatment, magnesium sulfate is not available in all low and middle income countries; scaling up its use for eclampsia and severe preeclampsia will contribute to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          10.1053/j.semperi.2009.02.010
          19464502

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