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Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Identification of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin Using Multivariate Statistical Methods

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      Most cited references 42

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      Global Water Resources: Vulnerability from Climate Change and Population Growth

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        The water footprint of humanity.

        This study quantifies and maps the water footprint (WF) of humanity at a high spatial resolution. It reports on consumptive use of rainwater (green WF) and ground and surface water (blue WF) and volumes of water polluted (gray WF). Water footprints are estimated per nation from both a production and consumption perspective. International virtual water flows are estimated based on trade in agricultural and industrial commodities. The global annual average WF in the period 1996-2005 was 9,087 Gm(3)/y (74% green, 11% blue, 15% gray). Agricultural production contributes 92%. About one-fifth of the global WF relates to production for export. The total volume of international virtual water flows related to trade in agricultural and industrial products was 2,320 Gm(3)/y (68% green, 13% blue, 19% gray). The WF of the global average consumer was 1,385 m(3)/y. The average consumer in the United States has a WF of 2,842 m(3)/y, whereas the average citizens in China and India have WFs of 1,071 and 1,089 m(3)/y, respectively. Consumption of cereal products gives the largest contribution to the WF of the average consumer (27%), followed by meat (22%) and milk products (7%). The volume and pattern of consumption and the WF per ton of product of the products consumed are the main factors determining the WF of a consumer. The study illustrates the global dimension of water consumption and pollution by showing that several countries heavily rely on foreign water resources and that many countries have significant impacts on water consumption and pollution elsewhere.
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          Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico

          An increase in the flux of nitrogen from the Mississippi river during the latter half of the twentieth century has caused eutrophication and chronic seasonal hypoxia in the shallow waters of the Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This has led to reductions in species diversity, mortality of benthic communities and stress in fishery resources. There is evidence for a predominantly anthropogenic origin of the increased nitrogen flux, but the location of the most significant sources in the Mississippi basin responsible for the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico have not been clearly identified, because the parameters influencing nitrogen-loss rates in rivers are not well known. Here we present an analysis of data from 374 US monitor ing stations, including 123 along the six largest tributaries to the Mississippi, that shows a rapid decline in the average first-order rate of nitrogen loss with channel size--from 0.45 day (-1) in small streams to 0.005 day (-1) in the Mississippi river. Using stream depth as an explanatory variable, our estimates of nitrogen-loss rates agreed with values from earlier studies. We conclude that the proximity of sources to large streams and rivers is an important determinant of nitrogen delivery to the estuary in the Mississippi basin, and possibly also in other large river basins.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            SUSTDE
            Sustainability
            Sustainability
            MDPI AG
            2071-1050
            February 2016
            January 30 2016
            : 8
            : 2
            : 133
            10.3390/su8020133
            © 2016

            https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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            Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/8/2/133

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