An experimental study of melt spinning and cold drawing of polyethylene and its Dow Chemical INSITE Ø catalyst octene copolymers was carried out. The structure and morphology of both melt spun and cold drawing fibers were investigated using wide angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and birefringence. Up to 5.9 mol.% octene, the fibers exhibit only the Bunn orthorhombic crystal structure. Fibers with 9.7 mol.% and 13.3 mol.% octene, whose DSC crystallinity is 0.23 and below, have an additional reflection at about 0.45nm. The Hermans-Stein orientation factors for the melt spun fibers were determined and correlated with spinline stress. Cold drawn polyethylene fibers exhibited additional reflection at 0.45, 0.38 and 0.35nm which may be associated with the Tanaka-Seto et al. monoclinic unit cell. The copolymers contained a decreased monoclinic level which disappears at about 5.9 mol.%. However, a broad reflection at 0.45nm, reappears at 9.7 mol.% octene. This reflection is also present at the 13.3 mol.% level. It is surmised that a pseudohexagonal or mesomorphic structure is developing. The Hermans-Stein orientation factors were determined for the drawn fibers as a function of cold draw ratio. Drawing results in high crystalline orientation and fibrillation for polyethylene fibers. For copolymers, with higher octene content, the fibrillation decreases.