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      Review on the Current Trends of Toxoplasmosis Serodiagnosis in Humans


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          Toxoplasmosis is a widely distributed zoonotic infection caused by the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is mainly transmitted through the ingestion of oocysts shed by an infected cat acting as its definitive host. The key to effective control and treatment of toxoplasmosis is prompt and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. Several laboratory diagnostic methods have been established, including the most commonly used serological assays such as the dye test (DT), direct or modified agglutination test (DAT/MAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHA), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect immunofluorescent test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), immunochromatographic tests (ICT), and the western blot. Nonetheless, creating specific and reliable approaches for serodiagnosis of T. gondii infection, and differentiating between acute and chronic phases of infection remains a challenge. This review provides information on the current trends in the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. It highlights the advantages of the use of recombinant proteins for serological testing and provides insight into the possible future direction of these methods.

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          Prediction of continuous B-cell epitopes in an antigen using recurrent neural network.

          B-cell epitopes play a vital role in the development of peptide vaccines, in diagnosis of diseases, and also for allergy research. Experimental methods used for characterizing epitopes are time consuming and demand large resources. The availability of epitope prediction method(s) can rapidly aid experimenters in simplifying this problem. The standard feed-forward (FNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) have been used in this study for predicting B-cell epitopes in an antigenic sequence. The networks have been trained and tested on a clean data set, which consists of 700 non-redundant B-cell epitopes obtained from Bcipep database and equal number of non-epitopes obtained randomly from Swiss-Prot database. The networks have been trained and tested at different input window length and hidden units. Maximum accuracy has been obtained using recurrent neural network (Jordan network) with a single hidden layer of 35 hidden units for window length of 16. The final network yields an overall prediction accuracy of 65.93% when tested by fivefold cross-validation. The corresponding sensitivity, specificity, and positive prediction values are 67.14, 64.71, and 65.61%, respectively. It has been observed that RNN (JE) was more successful than FNN in the prediction of B-cell epitopes. The length of the peptide is also important in the prediction of B-cell epitopes from antigenic sequences. The webserver ABCpred is freely available at www.imtech.res.in/raghava/abcpred/. Proteins 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            The history of Toxoplasma gondii--the first 100 years.

            In this paper the history of Toxoplasma gondii and toxoplasmosis is reviewed. This protozoan parasite was first discovered in 1908 and named a year later. Its medical importance remained unknown until 1939 when T. gondii was identified in tissues of a congenitally infected infant, and veterinary importance became known when it was found to cause abortion storms in sheep in 1957. The discovery of a T. gondii specific antibody test, Sabin-Feldman dye test in 1948 led to the recognition that T. gondii is a common parasite of warm-blooded hosts with a worldwide distribution. Its life cycle was not discovered until 1970 when it was found that felids are its definitive host and an environmentally resistant stage (oocyst) is excreted in feces of infected cats. The recent discovery of its common infection in certain marine wildlife (sea otters) indicates contamination of our seas with T. gondii oocysts washed from land. Hygiene remains the best preventive measure because currently there is no vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans.
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              Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii

              Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been improved by the emergence of molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been useful for the genetic characterization of T. gondii. Serotyping methods based on polymorphic polypeptides have the potential to become the choice for typing T. gondii in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize conventional non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, and the DNA-based molecular techniques for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii. These techniques have provided foundations for further development of more effective and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. These advances will contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis.

                Author and article information

                Front Cell Infect Microbiol
                Front Cell Infect Microbiol
                Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                08 May 2020
                : 10
                : 204
                [1] 1National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine , Obihiro, Japan
                [2] 2Institute of Molecular Parasitology and Protozoan Diseases at Main and College of Veterinary Medicine, Cebu Technological University , Cebu City, Philippines
                Author notes

                Edited by: Guo-Hua Liu, Hunan Agricultural University, China

                Reviewed by: Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Walailak University, Thailand; Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Brazil

                *Correspondence: Yoshifumi Nishikawa nisikawa@ 123456obihiro.ac.jp

                This article was submitted to Clinical Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

                Copyright © 2020 Ybañez, Ybañez and Nishikawa.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 27 January 2020
                : 16 April 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 185, Pages: 18, Words: 15412
                Cellular and Infection Microbiology

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                toxoplasma gondii,toxoplasmosis,serodiagnosis,recombinant antigens,human


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