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      Physical properties and biocompatibility of an injectable calcium-silicate-based root canal sealer: in vitro and in vivo study


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          The aim of this study was to investigate the physical properties and biological effects of an experimentally developed injectable premixed calcium-silicate root canal sealer (Endoseal) in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a resin-based sealer (AHplus).


          The pH, solubility, dimensional change, flow, and radiopacity of the materials were evaluated. Biocompatibility was evaluated on the basis of cell morphology and a viability test using MC3T3-E1 cells. For evaluate inflammatory reaction, the tested sealers were implanted into dorsal subcutaneous connective tissue of Sprague Dawley rats. After 7 days, the implants with the surrounding tissue were retrieved, and histological evaluation was performed.


          Endoseal showed high alkalinity similar to that of MTA. The solubility of the tested materials was similar. The dimensional change and flow of Endoseal was significantly higher than that of other materials ( P < 0.05). The radiopacity of Endoseal was lower than that of AHplus ( P < 0.05). The biocompatibility was similar to those of MTA. Inflammatory reaction of Endoseal was similar with that of MTA, but lower than that of AHplus ( P < 0.05).


          The present study indicates that Endoseal has favorable physical properties and biocompatibility. Therefore, we suggest that Endoseal has the potential to be used as a predictable root canal sealer.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Comparison of the physical and mechanical properties of MTA and portland cement.

          This study evaluated and compared the pH, radiopacity, setting time, solubility, dimensional change, and compressive strength of ProRoot MTA (PMTA), ProRoot MTA (tooth colored formula) (WMTA), white Portland cement (WP), and ordinary Portland cement (OP). The results showed that PMTA and Portland cement have very similar physical properties. However, the radiopacity of Portland cement is much lower than that of PMTA. The compressive strength of PMTA was greater than Portland cement at 28 days. The major constituent of PMTA is Portland cement. Given the low cost of Portland cement and similar properties when compared to PMTA, it is reasonable to consider Portland cement as a possible substitute for PMTA in endodontic applications. However, industrially manufactured Portland cement is not approved currently for use in the United States and therefore no clinical recommendation can be made for its use in the human body. Further in vitro and in vivo tests, especially with regards its biocompatibility, should be conducted to ascertain if it meets the FDA requirements for use as a medical device.
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            Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) solubility and porosity with different water-to-powder ratios.

            This study tested mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) solubility and porosity with different water-to-powder proportions. The study also determined the chemical composition of the salts dissolved by MTA. Four sets of specimens using the following water-to-powder proportions were prepared: 0.26, 0.28, 0.30, and 0.33 grams of water per gram of cement. The latter is the ratio recommended by the manufacturer. It was determined that the degree of solubility and porosity increased as the water-to-powder ratio increased. Significant differences were found among the sets of specimens. The chemical analyses of the salts dissolved by MTA in the water identified the presence of calcium as the main chemical compound. The pH level of the solution was highly alkaline, ranging between 11.94 and 11.99. It can be stated that the calcium found in the solution should be in its hydroxide state at this high pH level. This ability to release calcium hydroxide could be of clinical significance because it could be related to the proven capacity of MTA to induce mineralization.
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              Evaluation of cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealer MTA Fillapex.

              The aim of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, radiopacity, pH, and flow of a calcium silicate-based and an epoxy resin-based endodontic sealer, MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) and AH Plus (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), respectively.

                Author and article information

                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                21 October 2015
                21 October 2015
                : 15
                [ ]Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Jeonju-si, 54896 Korea
                [ ]Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, 20 Geonji-ro, 54907 Jeonju-si, Korea
                [ ]Department of Conservative Dentistry, Dental Research Institute and School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101 Daehak-ro, 03080 Seoul, Korea
                © Lim et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                injectable, calcium silicate, root canal sealer, physical, biological


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