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Depth and Well Type Related to Groundwater Microbiological Contamination

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      Abstract

      Use of groundwater from private wells in households has increased considerably, owing to a better cost/benefit ratio than that of water provided by local utilities for a fee. However, this water is usually untreated, which makes it a vehicle for diseases. Thus, monitoring this water is necessary to ensure its integrity and quality. We aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of untreated groundwater drawn from different types of wells, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the bacteria isolated from this water. Wellwater samples were collected in two Brazilian cities. Although physical and chemical parameters of the water were suitable for drinking, Escherichia coli was detected in 33% of the samples. E. coli contaminated 65% of dug wells and 10.25% of drilled wells. Many bacteria isolated were resistant to multiple antibacterial agents, including β-lactams. Microbial contamination of this water was related to the well depth, and was more common in dug wells, making this water unfit for human consumption. Consumption of such contaminated and untreated water is a public health concern. Thus, individuals who regularly use such water must be alerted so they may either take preventive measures or connect to the water distribution system operated by local utilities.

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      Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality

      (2011)
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        The role of the natural environment in the emergence of antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria.

        During the past 10 years, multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae have become a substantial challenge to infection control. It has been suggested by clinicians that the effectiveness of antibiotics is in such rapid decline that, depending on the pathogen concerned, their future utility can be measured in decades or even years. Unless the rise in antibiotic resistance can be reversed, we can expect to see a substantial rise in incurable infection and fatality in both developed and developing regions. Antibiotic resistance develops through complex interactions, with resistance arising by de-novo mutation under clinical antibiotic selection or frequently by acquisition of mobile genes that have evolved over time in bacteria in the environment. The reservoir of resistance genes in the environment is due to a mix of naturally occurring resistance and those present in animal and human waste and the selective effects of pollutants, which can co-select for mobile genetic elements carrying multiple resistant genes. Less attention has been given to how anthropogenic activity might be causing evolution of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Although the economics of the pharmaceutical industry continue to restrict investment in novel biomedical responses, action must be taken to avoid the conjunction of factors that promote evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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          Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health--a review.

          Water pollution is one of the major threats to public health in Pakistan. Drinking water quality is poorly managed and monitored. Pakistan ranks at number 80 among 122 nations regarding drinking water quality. Drinking water sources, both surface and groundwater are contaminated with coliforms, toxic metals and pesticides throughout the country. Various drinking water quality parameters set by WHO are frequently violated. Human activities like improper disposal of municipal and industrial effluents and indiscriminate applications of agrochemicals in agriculture are the main factors contributing to the deterioration of water quality. Microbial and chemical pollutants are the main factors responsible exclusively or in combination for various public health problems. This review discusses a detailed layout of drinking water quality in Pakistan with special emphasis on major pollutants, sources of pollution and the consequent health problems. The data presented in this review are extracted from various studies published in national and international journals. Also reports released by the government and non-governmental organizations are included. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Faculty of Exact Sciences and Technology, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS 79804-970, Brazil; nayaramaran@ 123456ufgd.edu.br (N.H.M.); brunocrispim.bio@ 123456gmail.com (B.d.A.C.); alexeiagrisolia@ 123456ufgd.edu.br (A.B.G.)
            [2 ]Faculty of Health Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS 79804-970, Brazil; stephanieiahnn@ 123456hotmail.com
            [3 ]Faculty of Biological and Environmental Science, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS 79804-970, Brazil; renataaraujo@ 123456ufgd.edu.br
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: kellyoliveira@ 123456ufgd.edu.br ; Tel.: +55-67-3410-2220
            Contributors
            Role: Academic Editor
            Role: Academic Editor
            Journal
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            Int J Environ Res Public Health
            ijerph
            International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
            MDPI
            1661-7827
            1660-4601
            21 October 2016
            October 2016
            : 13
            : 10
            27775681 5086775 10.3390/ijerph13101036 ijerph-13-01036
            © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

            Categories
            Article

            Public health

            total coliforms, escherichia coli, wells, microbial resistance, water resources

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