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      The Role of L- and T-Type Calcium Channels in Local and Remote Calcium Responses in Rat Mesenteric Terminal Arterioles

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The roles of intercellular communication and T-type versus L-type voltage-dependent Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels (VDCCs) in conducted vasoconstriction to local KCl-induced depolarization were investigated in mesenteric arterioles. Methods: Ratiometric Ca<sup>2+</sup> imaging (R) using Fura-PE3 with micro-ejection of depolarizing KCl solution and VDCC blockers, and immunohistochemical and RT-PCR techniques were applied to isolated rat mesenteric terminal arterioles (n = 71 from 47 rats; intraluminal diameter: 24 ± 1 μm; length: 550–700 μm). Results: Local application of KCl (at 0 μm) led to local (ΔR = 0.54) and remote (ΔR = 0.17 at 500 μm) increases in intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup>. Remote Ca<sup>2+</sup> responses were inhibited by the gap junction uncouplers carbenoxolone and palmitoleic acid. Ca<sub>V</sub>1.2, Ca<sub>V</sub>3.1 and Ca<sub>V</sub>3.2 channels were immunolocalized in vascular smooth muscle cells and Ca<sub>V</sub>3.2 in adjacent endothelial cells. Local and remote Ca<sup>2+</sup> responses were inhibited by bath application of L- and T-type blockers [nifedipine, NNC 55-0396 and R(–)-efonidipine]. Remote Ca<sup>2+</sup> responses (500 μm) were not affected by abolishing Ca<sup>2+</sup> entry at an intermediate position on the arterioles (at 200–300 μm) using micro-application of VDCC blockers. Conclusion: Both L- and T-type channels mediate Ca<sup>2+</sup> entry during conducted vasoconstriction to local KCl in mesenteric arterioles. However, these channels do not participate in the conduction process per se.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Abnormal coronary function in mice deficient in alpha1H T-type Ca2+ channels.

          Calcium ion (Ca2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is important for the regulation of vascular tone. Activation of L-type Ca2+ channels initiates muscle contraction; however, the role of T-type Ca2+ channels (T-channels) is not clear. We show that mice deficient in the alpha1H T-type Ca2+ channel (alpha(1)3.2-null) have constitutively constricted coronary arterioles and focal myocardial fibrosis. Coronary arteries isolated from alpha(1)3.2-null arteries showed normal contractile responses, but reduced relaxation in response to acetylcholine and nitroprusside. Furthermore, acute blockade of T-channels with Ni2+ prevented relaxation of wild-type coronary arteries. Thus, Ca2+ influx through alpha1H T-type Ca2+ channels is essential for normal relaxation of coronary arteries.
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            Contrasting biophysical and pharmacological properties of T-type and R-type calcium channels.

            In contrast to other kinds of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, the underlying molecular basis of T-type and R-type channels is not well-understood. To facilitate comparisons with cloned Ca2+ channel subunits, we have carried out a systematic analysis of the properties of T-type currents in undifferentiated NG108-15 cells and R-type currents in cerebellar granule neurons. Marked differences were found in their biophysical and pharmacological features under identical recording conditions. T-type channels became activated at potentials approximately 25 mV more negative than R-type channels; however, T-type channels required potentials approximately 15 mV less negative than R-type channels to be available. Accordingly, T-type channels display a much larger overlap between the curves describing inactivation and activation, making them more suitable for generating sustained Ca2+ entry in support of secretion or pacemaker activity. In contrast, R-type channels are not equipped to provide a steady current, but are very capable of supplying transient surges of Ca2+ influx. In response to a series of increasingly strong depolarizations T-type and R-type Ca2+ channels gave rise to very different kinetic patterns. T-type current records crossed each other in a characteristic pattern not found for R-type currents. These biophysical distinctions were independent of absolute membrane potential and were, therefore, complementary to the conventional categorization of T- and R-type Ca2+ channels as low- and high-voltage activated. R-type channels deactivated approximately eight-fold more quickly than T-type channels, with clear consequences for the generation of divalent cation influx during simulated action potentials. Pharmacological comparisons revealed additional contrasts. R-type current was responsive to block by omega-Aga IIIA but not nimodipine, while the opposite was true for T-type current. Both channel types were potently inhibited by the non-dihydropyridine compound mibefradil. In all respects examined, R-type currents were similar to currents derived from expression of the alpha1E subunit whereas T-type currents were not.
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              NNC 55-0396 [(1S,2S)-2-(2-(N-[(3-benzimidazol-2-yl)propyl]-N-methylamino)ethyl)-6-fluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-isopropyl-2-naphtyl cyclopropanecarboxylate dihydrochloride]: a new selective inhibitor of T-type calcium channels.

              Mibefradil is a Ca2+ channel antagonist that inhibits both T-type and high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. We previously showed that block of high-voltage-activated channels by mibefradil occurs through the production of an active metabolite by intracellular hydrolysis. In the present study, we modified the structure of mibefradil to develop a nonhydrolyzable analog, (1S, 2S)-2-(2-(N-[(3-benzimidazol-2-yl)propyl]-N-methylamino)ethyl)-6-fluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-isopropyl-2-naphtyl cyclopropanecarboxylate dihydrochloride (NNC 55-0396), that exerts a selective inhibitory effect on T-type channels. The acute IC(50) of NNC 55-0396 to block recombinant alpha(1)G T-type channels in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was approximately 7 microM, whereas 100 microM NNC 55-0396 had no detectable effect on high-voltage-activated channels in INS-1 cells. NNC 55-0396 did not affect the voltage-dependent activation of T-type Ca2+ currents but changed the slope of the steady-state inactivation curve. Block of T-type Ca2+ current was partially relieved by membrane hyperpolarization and enhanced at a high-stimulus frequency. Washing NNC 55-0396 out of the recording chamber did not reverse the T-type Ca2+ current activity, suggesting that the compound dissolves in or passes through the plasma membrane to exert its effect; however, intracellular perfusion of the compound did not block T-type Ca2+ currents, arguing against a cytoplasmic route of action. After incubating cells from an insulin-secreting cell line (INS-1) with NNC 55-0396 for 20 min, mass spectrometry did not detect the mibefradil metabolite that causes L-type Ca2+ channel inhibition. We conclude that NNC 55-0396, by virtue of its modified structure, does not produce the metabolite that causes inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels, thus rendering it more selective to T-type Ca2+ channels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2009
                February 2009
                02 September 2008
                : 46
                : 2
                : 138-151
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Renal and Vascular Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; bDepartment of Physiology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, and cDepartment of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; dLoyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Ill., USA
                Article
                151767 J Vasc Res 2009;46:138–151
                10.1159/000151767
                18765948
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 2, References: 42, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Paper

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