In 1920, the physician Alfred Grotjahn was appointed as first Chair for Social Hygiene
in Germany at the University of Berlin. During reign of national socialism, the Institute
for Social Hygiene was closed and from 1933 and 1945 transformed into an Institute
for Racial Hygiene. During that period, many German scientists including social medicine
co-workers of the Berlin Charité emigrated due to political, religious or racial prosecution.