3
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Erythropoietin Protects Rat Brain Injury from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning by Inhibiting Toll-Like Receptor 4/NF-kappa B-Dependent Inflammatory Responses

      , , , , , ,

      Inflammation

      Springer Nature

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Inflammatory responses play critical roles in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning-induced cerebral injury. The present study investigated whether erythropoietin (EPO) modulates the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory signaling pathways in brain injury after acute CO poisoning. EPO (2500 and 5000 U/kg) was injected subcutaneously twice a day after acute CO poisoning for 2 days. At 48 h after treatment, the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB as well as the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampal tissues were measured. Our results showed that CO poisoning induced a significant upregulation of TLR4, NF-κB, and inflammatory cytokines in the injured rat hippocampal tissues. Treatment with EPO remarkably suppressed the gene and protein expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB, as well as the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the hippocampal tissues. EPO treatment ameliorated CO poisoning-induced histological edema and neuronal necrosis. These results suggested that EPO protected against CO poisoning-induced brain damage by inhibiting the TLR4-NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 29

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity.

          Recognition of pathogens is mediated by a set of germline-encoded receptors that are referred to as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors recognize conserved molecular patterns (pathogen-associated molecular patterns), which are shared by large groups of microorganisms. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as the PRRs in mammals and play an essential role in the recognition of microbial components. The TLRs may also recognize endogenous ligands induced during the inflammatory response. Similar cytoplasmic domains allow TLRs to use the same signaling molecules used by the interleukin 1 receptors (IL-1Rs): these include MyD88, IL-1R--associated protein kinase and tumor necrosis factor receptor--activated factor 6. However, evidence is accumulating that the signaling pathways associated with each TLR are not identical and may, therefore, result in different biological responses.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in brain damage and inflammation after experimental stroke.

            Stroke is the second to third leading cause of death. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a signaling receptor in innate immunity that is a specific immunologic response to systemic bacterial infection and cerebral injury. The role of TLR4 in brain ischemia has not been examined yet. We have therefore investigated whether cerebral ischemia and inflammation produced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery differ in mice that lack a functional TLR4 signaling pathway. Permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was performed on 2 strains of TLR4-deficient mice (C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScNJ) and respective controls (C3H/HeN and C57BL/10ScSn). Stroke outcome was evaluated by determination of infarct volume and assessment of neurological scores. Brains were collected 24 hours and 7 days after stroke. When compared with control mice, TLR4-deficient mice had lower infarct volumes and better outcomes in neurological and behavioral tests. Mice that lacked TLR4 had minor expression of stroke-induced interferon regulatory factor-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, mediators implicated in brain damage. The levels of interferon-beta and of the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde were also lower in brains from TLR4-deficient mice than in those from control mice. In addition, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9, which is induced and mediates brain damage, was also reduced in TLR4-deficient mice after experimental stroke. TLR4-deficient mice have minor infarctions and less inflammatory response after an ischemic insult. These data demonstrate that TLR4 signaling and innate immunity are involved in brain damage and in inflammation triggered by ischemic injury.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Erythropoietin improved neurologic outcomes in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

              The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of erythropoietin in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), by using a randomized, prospective study design. A total of 167 term infants with moderate/severe HIE were assigned randomly to receive either erythropoietin (N = 83) or conventional treatment (N = 84). Recombinant human erythropoietin, at either 300 U/kg (N = 52) or 500 U/kg (N = 31), was administered every other day for 2 weeks, starting <48 hours after birth. The primary outcome was death or disability. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at 18 months of age. Complete outcome data were available for 153 infants. Nine patients dropped out during treatment, and 5 patients were lost to follow-up monitoring. Death or moderate/severe disability occurred for 35 (43.8%) of 80 infants in the control group and 18 (24.6%) of 73 infants in the erythropoietin group (P = .017) at 18 months. The primary outcomes were not different between the 2 erythropoietin doses. Subgroup analyses indicated that erythropoietin improved long-term outcomes only for infants with moderate HIE (P = .001) and not those with severe HIE (P = .227). No negative hematopoietic side effects were observed. Repeated, low-dose, recombinant human erythropoietin treatment reduced the risk of disability for infants with moderate HIE, without apparent side effects.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Inflammation
                Inflammation
                Springer Nature
                0360-3997
                1573-2576
                April 2016
                October 31 2015
                April 2016
                : 39
                : 2
                : 561-568
                Article
                10.1007/s10753-015-0280-4
                26521252
                © 2016

                Comments

                Comment on this article