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      Critical function for Naip5 in inflammasome activation by a conserved carboxy-terminal domain of flagellin.

      Nature immunology

      Amino Acid Motifs, immunology, Animals, Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins, metabolism, Calcium-Binding Proteins, Cytosol, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Flagellin, chemistry, Immunoblotting, Legionella pneumophila, Legionnaires' Disease, Macrophages, microbiology, Mice, Multiprotein Complexes, Neuronal Apoptosis-Inhibitory Protein, genetics, Toll-Like Receptor 5, Transduction, Genetic

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          Abstract

          Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that sense microbial infection and trigger cytokine production and cell death. However, the molecular components of inflammasomes and what they sense remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that 35 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus of flagellin triggered inflammasome activation in the absence of bacterial contaminants or secretion systems. To further elucidate the host flagellin-sensing pathway, we generated mice deficient in the intracellular sensor Naip5. These mice failed to activate the inflammasome in response to the 35 amino acids of flagellin or in response to Legionella pneumophila infection. Our data clarify the molecular basis for the cytosolic response to flagellin.

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          Most cited references 36

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          IAP antagonists induce autoubiquitination of c-IAPs, NF-kappaB activation, and TNFalpha-dependent apoptosis.

          Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are antiapoptotic regulators that block cell death in response to diverse stimuli. They are expressed at elevated levels in human malignancies and are attractive targets for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Herein, we demonstrate that small-molecule IAP antagonists bind to select baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains resulting in dramatic induction of auto-ubiquitination activity and rapid proteasomal degradation of c-IAPs. The IAP antagonists also induce cell death that is dependent on TNF signaling and de novo protein biosynthesis. Additionally, the c-IAP proteins were found to function as regulators of NF-kappaB signaling. Through their ubiquitin E3 ligase activities c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 promote proteasomal degradation of NIK, the central ser/thr kinase in the noncanonical NF-kappaB pathway.
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            IAP antagonists target cIAP1 to induce TNFalpha-dependent apoptosis.

            XIAP prevents apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting caspases, and this inhibition can be relieved by IAP antagonists, such as Smac/DIABLO. IAP antagonist compounds (IACs) have therefore been designed to inhibit XIAP to kill tumor cells. Because XIAP inhibits postmitochondrial caspases, caspase 8 inhibitors should not block killing by IACs. Instead, we show that apoptosis caused by an IAC is blocked by the caspase 8 inhibitor crmA and that IAP antagonists activate NF-kappaB signaling via inhibtion of cIAP1. In sensitive tumor lines, IAP antagonist induced NF-kappaB-stimulated production of TNFalpha that killed cells in an autocrine fashion. Inhibition of NF-kappaB reduced TNFalpha production, and blocking NF-kappaB activation or TNFalpha allowed tumor cells to survive IAC-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with an IAC, or those in which cIAP1 was deleted, became sensitive to apoptosis induced by exogenous TNFalpha, suggesting novel uses of these compounds in treating cancer.
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              Cytoplasmic flagellin activates caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1beta via Ipaf.

              Macrophages respond to Salmonella typhimurium infection via Ipaf, a NACHT-leucine-rich repeat family member that activates caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1beta. However, the specific microbial salmonella-derived agonist responsible for activating Ipaf is unknown. We show here that cytosolic bacterial flagellin activated caspase-1 through Ipaf but was independent of Toll-like receptor 5, a known flagellin sensor. Stimulation of the Ipaf pathway in macrophages after infection required a functional salmonella pathogenicity island 1 type III secretion system but not the flagellar type III secretion system; furthermore, Ipaf activation could be recapitulated by the introduction of purified flagellin directly into the cytoplasm. These observations raise the possibility that the salmonella pathogenicity island 1 type III secretion system cannot completely exclude 'promiscuous' secretion of flagellin and that the host capitalizes on this 'error' by activating a potent host-defense pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                18724372
                2614210
                10.1038/ni.1646

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