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      Antiglaucoma Potential of β-Glucogallin Is Mediated by Modulating Mitochondrial Responses in Experimentally Induced Glaucoma

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          Abstract

          Background: The use of phytochemicals for the treatment of various bodily ailments has been in practice since ancient days. Even though in practice, scientific studies on the protective effect of β-glucogallin (BG) against glaucoma is limited. Objectives: In the present study, the in vitro glaucoma model (hydrostatic pressure) using PC12 neuronal cells exposed to BG were used to elucidate its protective effects. Method: The cultured cells were analyzed for the mitochondrial responses, oxidant-antioxidant status, and expression of caveolin-1, ANGPTL7, the glaucoma markers, and cytokines. Results: We demonstrated a significant increase in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ANGPTL7, with altered mitochondrial enzymes in glaucoma cells compared to the control. Moreover, cells predisposed to hydrostatic pressure demonstrated an increase in oxidative stress with augmented ( p < 0.01) inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2, CXCR4, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α. On the other hand, cells pretreated with BG attenuated the reactive oxygen species levels with improved antioxidant enzymes. Simultaneously, the levels of inflammatory cytokines and ANGPTL7 proteins were found attenuated with restored mitochondrial responses in BG pretreated cells. Conclusion: Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate that the use of BG on retinal cells against relieving the intraocular pressure may be a promising therapeutic for controlling the disease progression.

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          Most cited references 74

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          GFAP in health and disease.

          Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main intermediate filament protein in mature astrocytes, but also an important component of the cytoskeleton in astrocytes during development. Major recent developments in astrocyte biology and the discovery of novel intermediate filament functions enticed the interest in the function of GFAP. The discovery of various GFAP splice variants gave an additional boost to explore this protein in more detail. The structural role of GFAP in astrocytes has been widely accepted for a long time, but over the years, GFAP has been shown to be involved in astrocyte functions, which are important during regeneration, synaptic plasticity and reactive gliosis. Moreover, different subpopulations of astrocytes have been identified, which are likely to have distinctive tasks in brain physiology and pathology, and which are not only classified by their spatial and temporal appearance, but also by their specific expression of intermediate filaments, including distinct GFAP isoforms. The presence of these isoforms enhances the complexity of the astrocyte cytoskeleton and is likely to underlie subtype specific functions. In this review we discuss the versatility of the GFAP cytoskeletal network from gene to function with a focus on astrocytes during human brain development, aging and disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Primary open-angle glaucoma.

            Primary open-angle glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and, perhaps, the most common form of glaucoma. Because the disease is treatable, and because the visual impairment caused by glaucoma is irreversible, early detection is essential. Early diagnosis depends on examination of the optic disc, retinal nerve fibre layer, and visual field. New imaging and psychophysical tests can improve both detection and monitoring of the progression of the disease. Recently completed long-term clinical trials provide convincing evidence that lowering intraocular pressure prevents progression at both the early and late stages of the disease. The degree of protection is related to the degree to which intraocular pressure is lowered. Improvements in therapy consist of more effective and better-tolerated drugs to lower intraocular pressure, and more effective surgical procedures. New treatments to directly treat and protect the retinal ganglion cells that are damaged in glaucoma are also in development.
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              Mitochondrial DNA mutations, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in mammalian aging.

              Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) accumulate in tissues of mammalian species and have been hypothesized to contribute to aging. We show that mice expressing a proofreading-deficient version of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase g (POLG) accumulate mtDNA mutations and display features of accelerated aging. Accumulation of mtDNA mutations was not associated with increased markers of oxidative stress or a defect in cellular proliferation, but was correlated with the induction of apoptotic markers, particularly in tissues characterized by rapid cellular turnover. The levels of apoptotic markers were also found to increase during aging in normal mice. Thus, accumulation of mtDNA mutations that promote apoptosis may be a central mechanism driving mammalian aging.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2020
                February 2021
                11 February 2021
                : 27
                : 3
                : 142-151
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China
                bDepartment of Orthopedic, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China
                cDepartment of Tumour, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China
                Author notes
                *Tingting Cao, Department of Ophthalmology, Cangzhou Central Hospital, No. 16 Xinhua West Road, Cangzhou 061001 (China), 297193014@qq.com
                Article
                512992 Neuroimmunomodulation 2020;27:142–151
                10.1159/000512992
                33571990
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

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