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      Cardiovascular Benefits of Dietary Melatonin: A Myth or a Reality?

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          Abstract

          The role of the diet as well as the impact of the dietary habits on human health and disease is well established. Apart from its sleep regulatory effect, the indoleamine melatonin is a well-established antioxidant molecule with multiple health benefits. Convincing evidence supports the presence of melatonin in plants and foods with the intake of such foods affecting circulating melatonin levels in humans. While numerous actions of both endogenous melatonin and melatonin supplementation are well described, little is known about the influence of the dietary melatonin intake on human health. In the present review, evidence for the cardiovascular health benefits of melatonin supplementation and dietary melatonin is discussed. Current knowledge on the biological significance as well as the underlying physiological mechanism of action of the dietary melatonin is also summarized. Whether dietary melatonin constitutes an alternative preventive treatment for cardiovascular disease is addressed.

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          Most cited references146

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          Extrapineal melatonin: sources, regulation, and potential functions.

          Endogenous melatonin is synthesized from tryptophan via 5-hydroxytryptamine. It is considered an indoleamine from a biochemical point of view because the melatonin molecule contains a substituted indolic ring with an amino group. The circadian production of melatonin by the pineal gland explains its chronobiotic influence on organismal activity, including the endocrine and non-endocrine rhythms. Other functions of melatonin, including its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, its genomic effects, and its capacity to modulate mitochondrial homeostasis, are linked to the redox status of cells and tissues. With the aid of specific melatonin antibodies, the presence of melatonin has been detected in multiple extrapineal tissues including the brain, retina, lens, cochlea, Harderian gland, airway epithelium, skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, thyroid, pancreas, thymus, spleen, immune system cells, carotid body, reproductive tract, and endothelial cells. In most of these tissues, the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes have been identified. Melatonin is present in essentially all biological fluids including cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bile, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, and breast milk. In several of these fluids, melatonin concentrations exceed those in the blood. The importance of the continual availability of melatonin at the cellular level is important for its physiological regulation of cell homeostasis, and may be relevant to its therapeutic applications. Because of this, it is essential to compile information related to its peripheral production and regulation of this ubiquitously acting indoleamine. Thus, this review emphasizes the presence of melatonin in extrapineal organs, tissues, and fluids of mammals including humans.
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            ISOLATION OF MELATONIN, THE PINEAL GLAND FACTOR THAT LIGHTENS MELANOCYTES1

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              Identification of melatonin in plants and its effects on plasma melatonin levels and binding to melatonin receptors in vertebrates.

              Twenty-four edible plants were investigated for the presence of melatonin, heretofore considered to be a molecule found only in the animal kingdom. The amount of melatonin in different plants varied greatly with highest melatonin being present in plants of the rice family. Melatonin was identified by radioimmunoassay and verified by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Feeding a diet containing plant products rich in melatonin to chicks increased radioimmunoassayable levels of melatonin in their blood. Likewise, melatonin extracted from plants inhibited binding of [125I]iodomelatonin to rabbit brain. Thus, melatonin ingested in foodstuffs enters the blood and is capable of binding to melatonin binding sites in the brain of mammals.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-042X
                17 May 2018
                2018
                : 9
                : 528
                Affiliations
                Cardioprotection Group, Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Research in Africa, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town , Cape Town, South Africa
                Author notes

                Edited by: Pasquale Pagliaro, Università degli Studi di Torino, Italy

                Reviewed by: Vincenzo Lionetti, Scuola Sant'Anna di Studi Avanzati, Italy; Antonio Colantuoni, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

                *Correspondence: Frederic Nduhirabandi frederic.nduhirabandi@ 123456uct.ac.za

                This article was submitted to Vascular Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2018.00528
                5967231
                29867569
                9615ae91-ad1e-47f5-8a55-574bea1aa8ae
                Copyright © 2018 Jiki, Lecour and Nduhirabandi.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 29 January 2018
                : 24 April 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 162, Pages: 17, Words: 12881
                Funding
                Funded by: National Research Foundation 10.13039/501100001321
                Award ID: 109198
                Award ID: 104807
                Categories
                Physiology
                Review

                Anatomy & Physiology
                antioxidant,cardiovascular diseases,hypertension,melatonin,myocardial infarction

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